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19 Apr 2021

275th anniversary of the Battle of Culloden – films

A view of a large moorland area, with a large stone cairn in the distance. The sky is blue, with white fluffy clouds scudding across.
Working with historians, archaeologists and local partners, the Gaelic Society of Inverness and XpoNorth, we have created a thought-provoking programme to share the latest research and to promote the protection of the battlefield. We've shared some of the films below for those not able to attend our online event.

Culloden 300

Presenting the findings of the Culloden 300 report on the current threats and how we can better protect the battlefield, with Operations Manager Raoul Curtis-Machin.

Culloden 300 - Protecting the Battlefield


KATEY BOAL: The story of Culloden is universal.
It is a story of war, violence, and the communities that emerged from it.
These combined to create a sense of place that you can really sense here on the battlefield and we are actively working to preserve it.

RAOUL CURTIS-MACHIN: The threat to Culloden Battlefield is from inappropriate housing development.
Now, you can see over my shoulder here the Viewhill development.
This is 16 five-bedroom executive modern homes of a style that's completely inappropriate
to this landscape setting.
At one stage in the last two years we felt surrounded by planning applications.
There were six applications on every single side of the battlefield, and if we're not careful we'll end up like Central Park where we're surrounded by inappropriate housing developments.
What these do is actually they disrupt the sense of place.
So by putting something which is so out of keeping in a line of sight, people lose the emotional response that they have to this landscape.
And it makes it incredibly difficult then for them to experience history in a meaningful way that's so important to them.
It's one of the biggest challenges for us in the National Trust for Scotland to resource the battle against these types of developments because every application could have five or six turns and twists to it as they appeal and they tweak a development and we have to try and keep on top of what's being talked about
How important is the piece of land on which the development proposal is on?
How much archaeology do we know about that piece of land?
What was the historical part that it played in the battle?
All this takes time and we have to do the right thing by people.
A big challenge we have is to define inappropriate development.
This is partly what was behind the Culloden 300 initiative.
As a conservation charity we have a fair idea of what we think appropriate development might look like and what inappropriate development looks like.
But we are not the sole arbiters of taste with Culloden.
It's a national asset, it's an international asset.
So really we want everybody else to help decide what type of development and what type of landscape Culloden should look like going into the future.
Our first step was to actually engage our local communities and ask people: why does Culloden matter?
It's okay for us to say it.
We know why it matters, but we need to know from everybody else.
Is it that significant?
If there's only a handful of people that really care then we're wasting our time.
Our first step was to do a big survey of all the visitors that came to the site and also all the local communities.
We then engaged with academics and other key stakeholders.
We held a series of town hall events which were local community halls and community spaces.
That enabled us to get different layers of response from people.
Initially, that sense of well, of course it matters now 75% of our respondents gave us a massive, clear response.
Yes, it matters.
Yes, It's important.
These were UK respondents.
21% of the respondents were international.
They came back and said it's vitally important.
In the community hall events, we were able to tease out more about what appropriate development might look like and what inappropriate development definitely wouldn't be suitable.
There we put wire frames up in front of people and we had a more in-depth discussion about what was acceptable visually and what wasn't.
The responses that we got have given us the mandate to really advocate seriously now and to try to work a lot more collaboratively with our local stakeholders to improve the planning system and improve the processes for dealing with planning applications.
This is the Culloden 300 report here, which you can download from the website.
Our starting point was to survey 3,000 people.
2,900 responded to the online survey and 100 people were surveyed in physical meetings pre-COVID, where we could actually analyse people's responses and talk a bit more in depth about how they felt about Culloden.
Of the responses, 75% were from the wider UK area, 21% were international.
The survey was open for a year for the Culloden 300 initiative.
And we then spent about a month going through all the responses and coding in the responses looking for strong key messages from all the different respondents to the survey.
What came through loud and clear were three main threads.
One was on the sense of place.
This slightly intangible way of describing a place and it's importance, it's a combination of the cultural significance of the historical event of the battle itself and the physical landscape.
In combination, the three together are greater than the sum of their parts and that's what we mean by sense of place.
The other main threads which the respondents told us about were memorialisation and remembrance.
Memorialisation is about actually commemorating the event that took place.
Remembrance as we know every year at Armistice is about actually remembering the fallen and the tragic events that took place here.
The third thread which people told us about loud and clear was in the impact of the events that took place here.
So the historical significance both locally, nationally and internationally.
After Culloden Highland culture changed the Scots' diaspora really took flight and there are people who come back now to visit, who may have had threads which go back hundreds of years, which started off when the Highlanders were chased off Culloden Moor and then went to the four winds.
The next steps for us now as the National Trust for Scotland to try to get a collaborative group together to improve the planning system, produce much stronger and more meaningful guidance to planners to look into the possibilities of acquiring land around Culloden so we can actually protect it for forever for everybody, also to look at long-term conservation agreements.
Can we work in partnership with local people and local landowners to protect the site?
Can we also try and measure sense of place?
We talk about its intangible qualities but most things can be measured.
So if we can come up with a physical peer-reviewed way to evaluate sense of place, we can use it to protect the site from inappropriate development.
We can also look at strengthening designations.
So UNESCO World Heritage site status for Culloden could make an important difference to us.
It will certainly raise the profile with planners and other authorities.
And of course, the biggest and the most important challenge for us is to make sure that there are no further inappropriate developments like Viewhill that we have here.
Because quite honestly, it's a travesty that as a country we're not protecting this national asset better than we are.

NARRATOR: We must act now.
We've already seen an increase in planning applications across the Moor, which is why we've created Culloden's Fighting Fund.
We need your help.
A gift to the fund will provide us with the resources to fight insensitive development and let’s us work collaboratively with local and national stakeholders to protect the cultural significance of Culloden Moor.
You can donate today at or you can text call CULLODEN, that's C-U-L-L-O-D-E-N to 70970 to donate £5.
Donate £5 by texting CULLODEN, C-U-L-L-O-D-E-N to 70970
Fundraising payments and donations will be processed and administered by the National Funding Scheme charity number 1149800 operating as DONATE.
Texts will be charged at your standard network rate.
For terms and conditions, see
Thank you.

Charles Edward Stuart – Italian dandy, selfish alcoholic or charismatic prince?

Art historian Count Peter Pininski will reveal insights into the real character of Charles Edward Stuart, who was the driving force behind the 1745 rising that ended at Culloden.

Charles Edward Stuart – Italian dandy, selfish alcoholic or charismatic prince?


so open to his daughter's influence that when Charlotte gently, patiently, made the case for
her father being gentler and positive towards her mother, Charles took this up really quite
Again, these are Charles's words, which he wrote on the 3rd of January, 1787, "Although I've
charged my dear daughter, the Duchess of Albany, to tell you how much I was moved by
your letter of the 18th of the past month, I cannot refrain from indicating also my sincere
gratitude. The prayers that you address to heaven, the wishes that you make for my
happiness and felicity, I believe most sincere, and it seems they may be realized since I
enjoy perfect health, and hope in return that you may always be in the same state. My dear
daughter, the Duchess Albany, is also at this moment in the best of health. The sweetness of
her nature, her good qualities, and her amiable companionship diminish greatly the pains
and inconveniences that are indispensably joined to my aged condition. Rest assured that I
love her, and that I shall love her with all my heart, and that I am and shall be your good
friend, Charles,"
That, to the person who I think at one time he had hated and been more furious with than to
any other living person during his entire life. Genetically lucky with regard to inborn talents,
certainly, they came in the main from the Sobieski side, whence his dynamism, military
intuition, and charisma. But alongside a brittle personality, one capable of this wonderful
charisma, kindness, empathy, generosity, perhaps not empathy, generosity of heart towards
others, even his enemies, when things are going well, but almost nothing in between. And on
the brittle side, when things go badly, lack of maturity, lack of patience, a spoiled nature
which flew into a rage characterized by high emotion, hence, his inability to cope with that
degree of emotion, that degree of frustration, producing exceedingly passionate love affairs,
extremely heavy drinking. And yet, in all of this, he had a great capacity to forgive and move
on when given a really good reason to do so.
KATIE: Thanks, Peter. It's been really interesting. I've really appreciated you taking the time
to walk through Charles's character with us. So, yeah, thank you so much. It's been
absolutely great.
NARRATOR: We must act now. The hallowed ground of Culloden battlefield is under serious
threat from inappropriate housing and other types of development. At several times in the
past 18 months, we've been surrounded by planning applications. And it takes time and
effort to try to fight them to protect this site. Please help us by donating to the Culloden
Fighting Fund. You can donate by the website at or by texting CULLODEN
to 70970, to donate five pounds. We really appreciate your help. Thank you for your support.
It means the world to us. (wind gusting)
Donate five pounds by texting CULLODEN to 70970. Fundraising payments and donations
will be processed and administered by the National Funding Scheme, charity number
1149800, operating as DONATE.
Texts will be charged at your standard network rate. For terms and conditions, see
Thank you.

The Battle of Culloden 275 years on: ideology, optimism and why we still care

Join Dr Darren S Layne as he explores why Culloden still matters, 275 years after the battle. The battlefield and visitor centre remain a site of pilgrimage for visitors, re-enactors, annual commemorators and those members of the global diaspora who have ‘come home’.

The Battle of Culloden 275 years on - Ideology, optimism and why we still care


KATIE: Good afternoon. I am very happy to welcome Dr. Darren S. Layne to join us in our
lecture this afternoon. Darren received his PhD from the University of St. Andrews. He's the
creator and curator of the Jacobite Database of 1745. And it's a study of people who were
involved in the last rising and his interests are focused on popular Jacobitism and how the
movement was expressed. And Darren is going to talk to us about the Battle of Culloden 275
Years On, Ideology, Optimism and Why We Still Care. And I have to say I'm really looking
forward to hearing you speak Darren and so I guess, over to you.
DARREN: Hi there, I'm Darren and I'm very thankful to you for joining me today to mark the
275th anniversary of the Battle of Culloden as part of this great program of NTS
commemoration events.
There's something special about Culloden, isn't there? That's why you're here spending your
time listening to this talk, instead of going about your weekend business or pleasure. This of
course is somewhat of a milestone year, perhaps somewhat of a challenging year, nearly
three centuries on on the action that took place on the moorland, just outside of Inverness in
the Highlands of Scotland. Something or some things about this battle and its legacy have
brought us all here to talk about it virtually this year. Like we have in person in many years
before this to share our thoughts and beliefs and our feelings about it, about what happened
on that field and how it still affects our lives today in many ways and for many disparate
reasons and about what might yet happen to that field, as we manage, develop and protect
the land, that forms its context.There is indeed something special, something important
about Culloden and that's why we're all here.
Before we continue, I'd like to provide a brief summary, a brief survey, of what I'm discussing
with you today, just so you know what to expect. The next 20 minutes will not draw back the
curtain on a hidden or forgotten history or disclose a wealth of game-changing new research
nor is it an attempt at either myth busting or myth-making about the facts of Culloden. I will
not be uncovering freshly discovered secrets of the field or breakthroughs and archeological
surveys that reveal shocking new perspectives of the battle. All of these things have been
covered by far more capable scholars. Some of which are also speaking on behalf of the
NTS this weekend. All of that work continues and will likely continue to continue for the rest
of our lives because there's something special about Culloden.
What I'd like to talk with you about today is why we still care so much after all these years for
such a short and tactically simple battle, Culloden leaves a long and complex legacy and
people have complex feelings about what happened there but what separates Culloden from
countless other battles through history or even just through 18th century? Why does it seem
to have so much resonance and why does it command such reverence in the hearts and the
minds of people all over the world?
Like many sites of historical significance, especially ones where thousands of human lives
are at stake, we can connect with the psychic tragedy of mass loss and the tangible effects
of that loss. Beyond this though, Culloden stands out as a symbol or a talisman of sorts into
which many different people can inset their own beliefs and feelings. Accordingly, the battle
and its legacy represent a broad scale of mental and emotional convictions and none of
them are wrong or necessarily inappropriate.

Culloden captures and conjures a collective memory of loss for many, whether that be
personal, familial, communal or national. Some believe it was targeted genocide upon
Highland culture by the British state and the result of the battle is often described as the
trigger for the death of the clan system. And even the first hint of the leader clearances both
highland and lowland. Others morally identify with the Jacobite caused by imagining with
dedication, gallantry and the sacrifice of those who came out for Bonnie Prince Charlie and
the brutality with which they're treated by the British government and its army after the
defeat. Conversely, Culloden is also a vital marker of the longevity and the vitality of the
British Empire and a rousing victory for union. It's the vast majority of Britain's on both sides
of the border who welcomed such absolute success after months of anxiety and fear.
For the many Scots who supported the Hanoverian regime of George II their self identified
patriotism and loyalty to king and country was not necessarily dependent upon a Stuart
restoration. This is what happens in civil wars and why they are so terrible. But the Jacobite
risings in Britain created a much larger ripples in the ocean of international politics than what
was just felt domestically and Culloden was the final sinkhole into which nearly a hundred
years of dynastic contention was abruptly drained. As Murray Pittock has mentioned, to
many the sacrifice more than the politics is what matters today but we still think about the
politics both in the context of the 18th Century and perhaps more so in circulated upon
modern conceptions of Scotland's place within Britain and the wider world.
It's difficult to draw direct lines between the motives and ideology of 18th Century historical
Jacobitism and those who claim to be Neo Jacobites, Stuart legitimists or Scottish
nationalists today. But many still make this claim, partly because the disappointment and the
tragedy of marshal Jacobtism's death at Culloden still speaks to them regardless of time,
regardless of dynasty, of faith or of polity today. It has represented and continues to
represent both a regrettable missed opportunity and a catastrophic lost cause.
We also still care about Culloden because of the land itself. Often described as a bare and
blasted moorland windswept and of little agricultural value. The entire Nairn river valley is
actually quite fertile ground. It's been used for thousands of years as a place of significance,
both spiritual, industrial. It has always been a graveyard as evidenced by the extensive
network of ancient burial sites and religious markers, just footsteps away from where the
fighting took place. There's a stillness in the area and perhaps something on the wind.
Quarries, mills and farms, dot the way and a forestry plantation seated squarely on the
battlefield for the better part of a century only to finally be cleared in recent years. This land
continues to support families, farms, wildlife and a vast assortment of spectacular flora.
Therefore Culloden is a life-giving field as well as a life taking field.
We haven't always cared about Culloden as we do today. Around the time of the building of
a new visitor center in 2007, geography and heritage scholars, John and Margaret Gold,
convincingly traced the lineage of popular memory of the battle by looking at how it had been
represented and remembered through history. They pointed out that in the decades directly
after the battle, very few visitors were attracted to the moor and the journals of travelers to
the area were far more likely to mention other landmarks and natural features than the killing
field itself. It wasn't until the early 19th Century that a more sentimental remembrance of
Culloden began to take hold driven by the romantic works of Austin and Scott, as well as a
general transformation in the way that commemorative practices were viewed across the

world. The ubiquitous memorial cairn at the center of the field and the clan gravestones were
not placed until the 1880s and by that time, the living memory of the battle as well as the
immediate danger of a Jacobite driven revolution, had faded into something more tolerant to
borrow a term from Daniel Sachi a certain optimistic memory of the entire dreadful endeavor.
Books, film and heritage interpretation took it from there all of which have contributed to why
we can, should and do care. Alison Landsberg calls this prosthetic memory or the acquisition
of the memory of others often through interpretive sites like museums and battlefields. That
memory itself is evolving and adapting helped along by a number of different sources of
historical presentation.
History is indeed interpreted and experiential. It is not simply one account of what definitively
happened from a single point of view or perspective. Naturally the study of historical
occurrences, like what happened at Culloden, are also interpreted. If we weren't present we
can partially rely on accounts from those who were. The more coverage in this way that we
have access to, the more detail we can glean from being there in absentia. The riots at the
US Capitol earlier this year, for instance, are incredibly well covered because of all the
technology brought to bear on recording the proceedings in real time. Of course, 275 years
on from what took place at Culloden things are much more difficult to pin down. If only the
combatants had been equipped with smartphones. Yet we don't care about Culloden
because of facts. We care about it because of the feelings associated with depictions and
experiences of others and how that's portrayed today.
How do we know what we know about the Battle of Culloden? Three general categories of
information helped to shape our understanding of what happened. Our memories of why it
matters and why we still care. First, popular media like historical fiction, film and news
articles. These are generally aimed at a broad public audience and often have fiscal
objectives driving them. Accordingly, the more tantalizing they appear the more likely these
sources will hook people in, elicit clicks and views on websites and social media and
encourage the purchase of subscriptions and volumes, merchandise. They're the least
regulated by accuracy or historiographical guidance and some are intentionally designed
with the purpose of melding history and fantasy together or blurring the lines between them.
Second, scholarly research using primary and secondary sources. Any library catalog or
internet search will reveal a massive number of scholarly books on the Jacobite era and
most of these include some reference to Culloden if not expressly focusing on the battle
itself, Many are synthesized from primary accounts but some don't use a single primary
source. With these often come the biases or agendas of a particular historian, as often as we
are trained not to fall prey to them. And while plenty of books are available in the open
market, accessibility can be a real issue for some of the academic presses which tend to
print short runs and charge exorbitant prices for both physical and digital copies.
Third are archival sources from eyewitnesses or others directly connected to the events.
These are generally the most useful sources to consult but also the most difficult to access.
The good news is that numerous collections have recently been digitized and are accessible
remotely to anyone with certain library memberships or archived accounts. The bad news is
that some of these repositories have been monetized for profit corporations who restrict
access in favor of institutional subscriptions, which does very little to help place the sources
in front of our eyes. Furthermore, even eye witness accounts can be heavily biased and

should be considered as contextual evidence rather than bulletproof statements of fact. Take
the numerous published memoirs of Jacobite commanders for instance, many of which are
predicated upon deferral of blame and whose pros can barely contain the frustration and
contempt for the disaster that followed.
All of these sources contribute to our knowledge, the battle and inform the nature of our
care. The more we read, the more it helps to shape and transform our prosthetic memory.
No matter which sources we consult, there'll always be pitfalls. This can be frustrating but it
should also provide incentive to responsibly consume the information that most evokes our
interest. History is sculpted after all by the stories that we tell ourselves and others.
Changing pace a bit, I would like to share with you one of the reasons why I care about
Culloden. When I walked the field or when I look at the delicate artifacts from the battle on
display at different museums or when I leaf through a bundle of old documents in the
archives, I think about the individuals on both sides whose lives embodied this conflict and
our study of it today. The recreation of it in our minds. My love of history was first founded by
reflecting upon the experiences of the common person, perhaps a less glamorous subject to
some, the field of study focuses on kings and queens, princes and other elites. I've always
wanted to find out more about why so many thousands of people participated in the Jacobite
challenge and why so many tens of thousands did not. Ideologies of course, are at the heart
of any politics. Any social progression and any faith, without them, these causes and
movements gathered no steam and have no propensity to develop.
But the question remains, how did the great majority of people in the Jacobite army view
what they were doing? Why were they there? Was it these ideologies that propelled them or
with they driven largely by more personal or practical reasons? I think that if we'd had the
chance to stroll through the Jacobite lines at Culloden and have a chat with some of the
combatants there just before the battle, you might be surprised by some of the reasons they
would offer.
The great bulk of my own research bears out that as we ask more questions about their
personal motives, the monolithic ideological bulwarks of Jacobitism with which we're so
familiar, tend to fade in the light of more immediate and practical considerations. Separating
these concepts into spheres is not suggesting we're mutually exclusive, rather it gives us a
greater depth of understanding about the individual motivations and the real people who
stood on that moor at Culloden 275 years ago this weekend. For me, it bridges the divide of
years and provides an angle of empathy that helps me understand the stakes more clearly
and helps inform the nature of my care. Perhaps you might also consider this the next time
you're able to visit the battlefield in person and especially if you'll be visiting for the very first
You may have gotten here to your interest in the Jacobite era from any number of different
roads. It might have been from your schooling, in childhood or a university as an adult.
Maybe it was sparked from the pomp and glamor of historical reenactment or maybe the
tactical curiosity of war gaming. You could very well have ancestors who were somehow
involved with one or the other side of the Jacobite risings or maybe both. Perhaps you were
first hooked in by works of historical fiction like John Prebble or you were startled by the
documentary like realism of Peter Watkins or like millions of people in recent years, you were

first introduced to the Jacobite era and the battle of Culloden by the extraordinary
phenomenon commonly known as the Outlander effect.
I'd like to say now explicitly that any of these roads or reasons for your interest are totally
acceptable because you're here now, how you got here is beside the point. If anybody,
self-professed expert or otherwise, tries to guard the intellectual or emotional gate against
your excitement and enthusiasm or tells you that you don't really understand what happened
at Culloden, I encourage you to ignore them. You're here now and your interest in the
subject and your own personal reasons for caring are the only things that really matter.
We've all still got a lot more to learn and discover about the battle, the people who were
engaged within it and the land itself upon which they bled.
Thank you for spending this time with me and I hope to see you again in about 25 years for
the 300th anniversary, if not well before that.
KATIE: Thank you so much, Darren. That was a really personal and memorable talk and I
thought it was absolutely great and would absolutely echo what you've just said. Culloden is
a place for everyone. So thanks again. I appreciate you taking the time to join us this
DARREN: Thanks so much for having me, Katey, it was a pleasure to speak with you.
NARRATOR: We must act now. The hallowed ground of Culloden battlefield is under serious
threat from inappropriate housing and other types of development. At several times in the
past 18 months we've been surrounded by planning applications and it takes time and effort
to try to fight them to protect this site.
Please help us by donating to the Culloden Fighting Fund. You can donate by the website at or by texting Culloden to 70970 to donate five pounds. We really
appreciate your help. Thank you for your support, it means the world to us.
Donate five pounds by texting CULLODEN to 70970 Fundraising payments and donations
will be processed and administered by the National Funding Scheme, charity number
1149800 operating as DONATE.
Texts will be charged at your standard network rate. For terms and conditions, see
Thank you.

The Gaelic Society of Inverness and the National Trust for Scotland commemoration of the 275th anniversary of the Battle of Culloden

275th Anniversary of Culloden


MURDO CAMPBELL (in Gaelic): A warm welcome to you all wherever you are watching
this from in the world. The Gaelic Society of Inverness have held an annual service at
Culloden since 1925 on the Saturday nearest to the date of the battle.
Unfortunately in March 2020 a pandemic hit the world which meant we hadn`t been able to
hold this service. We didn't want this to be the situation this year and whilst we are unable to
hold the service on site in the normal way we are delighted to be able to broadcast the
service on line in conjunction with The National Trust for Scotland at Culloden.
You will hear a lecture from the Gaelic Society of Inverness`s Chief Martin MacGregor. You
will hear a pipe tune from the society's renowned piper Euan MacCrimmon. The society's
bard Maoilios Caimbeul has composed a poem and will recite it here. There was a custom at
Gaelic services that lining out or precenting was used when singing psalms, due mainly to
lack of psalm books. You will hear this from a previous service held at Culloden.
RAOUL CURTIS-MACHIN: Welcome to Culloden Battlefield from the National Trust for
Scotland on this the 275th anniversary of the Battle of Culloden. On this day 275 years ago
the last rising of the Jacobites was brutally crushed and Highland culture changed forever. At
the National Trust for Scotland we feel privileged to be looking after the battlefield and we
want to thank you for joining us today to help commemorate the fallen.
EUAN MacCRIMMON: [bagpipe music and scenes of the battlefield]
KATEY BOAL: Welcome Dr Martin MacGregor. Dr MacGregor is a senior lecturer in Scottish
history at the University of Glasgow, specialising in the history of the Highlands, or Gaelic
Scotland, in particular in reference to the Middle Ages, so about 1300 to 1600, and the use
of Gaelic orientated and Gaelic sources. I'm really looking forward to hearing what you have
to say. So please, Dr MacGregor...
DR MARTIN MacGREGOR (in Gaelic): I am Martin MacGregor, and it is a great honour for
me to be the chief of the Gaelic Society of Inverness this year. On behalf of the Society, a
warm welcome to you all. 275 years ago, the battle of Culloden took place. It is not at
Culloden and in person, but by other means, that we have to come together this year, but for
all that our thoughts are there, and our sympathy is with those who suffered at the battle, or
because of it: Jacobites and Hanoverians, Gaels and non-Gaels, men women, children.
Culloden raises many fundamental questions about the history and place of the Gaels in
Scotland. Some still hold that this was the most significant event and turning point in our
history; that the world of the clans came to an end on this one day. Others believe that this
world was already in the grip of great change well before Culloden, and that Culloden was
another milestone on that road: a major milestone to be sure, but perhaps not as important
as others, such as Waterloo for example. But is a road the most appropriate metaphor for
our history, with some willing to connect Culloden with other milestones – the suppression of
the Lordship of the Isles, the Statutes of Iona, the Massacre of Glencoe, the Clearances and
above all else the loss of language – to produce a straight-line narrative of the going down of
the Gaels in Scotland; or is our history better understood as a circle capable of renewal and
resurrection? Who are we believe made our history in any case: the Gaels as a whole, or the
clan chiefs who compelled the population to follow their will, or government and authority
which was always based outside the Highlands, and without Gaelic? If the Gaels did indeed
possess the freedom and capacity to make their own history, what were their reasons for
supporting the Stewarts, and dying on their behalf on Culloden Moor?
In what follows I would like to say a little on these questions, through the lens of the songs
which were made by those who sided with the Jacobites. I am following the path taken by
Professor William Gillies, a former chief of the Society, in his fine essay ‘Gaelic Songs of the
’45’ – the best scholarly contribution on the subject to date, in my view. We are all aware that
very little Gaelic poetry and song has come down to us from the other side, or was made on
that side in the first place, and that in itself tells us something. But the Jacobite songs
contain a range of views and voices, and I shall seek to bring these out.
It is appropriate to begin with a soldier who fought at Culloden, and barely escaped with his
life, John Roy Stewart. At the start of this song it seems as if we are indeed at the road’s
end, with no reason for hope left:
O I am in anguish,
My heart has sunk low,
Tears often fall to my heel from my eyesight.
My hearing’s deserted me,
I don’t hear at this time
Anything cheerful slowly or quickly.
But even before the end of the song the road has become a circle, that will yet revolve:
But fortune’s wheel will come round
A turn from north or from south,
And our foe will get evil’s reward …
And we will all be at last,
Both the old and the young,
Under our true king whom it’s right to obey.
We find the same perspective at the start of another poem composed after Culloden, by
Alexander MacDonald, Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair:
Cold and rainy is each day,
Each night dark and stormy;
Sad and gloomy is each day,
Close, and misty laden;
But waken up, O people,
And put your sorrow from you,
Put away your grief,
A jewel there is, by wind and sea,
To be in Aeolus’ and Neptune’s keeping,
And after him shall come all joy.
The jewel is Charles Edward Stewart, who was born in Rome in 1720, and for several
reasons John MacLachlan’s poem composed to celebrate the birth bears comparison with
the words of the two other poets:
A Phoenix is born o’er in Rome,
A tale of great joy in its time;
May he who the King's right maintains
Have strength and justice and aid;
Fortune's wheel will yet turn again
And the man who’s aloft will fall low,
The man who is climbing will rise,
And the other to earth down will fall.
A further comparison may be made with the vision of a poet in the era of the Clearances.
About 50 years after Culloden, Allan MacDougall testified to a new devastation that had
come to the Highlands:
Cows and calves are not seen in a glen,
Or horses, hardly, being harnessed;
It was the essence of the prophecy
That the plough would become redundant ...
As the poem’s editor (Professor Donald Meek, also a former chief of the Society) explains,
the prophecy the poet has in mind here is ‘The jawbone of the sheep will cause the plough to
be put on the hen-roost’. But the wheel comes full circle come the era of the Highland Land
Wars, in the song composed by John MacRae which he himself sang at a large gathering of
crofters in Loch Carron schoolhouse on 11 March 1886. The song begins:
The plough has indeed been placed on the hen-roost,
And the arable land has been laid waste;
What has been taken from us is precisely
What our forefathers had on rent …
But then comes the transformation:
But the plough will be taken off the hen-roost,
And the garrons set in harness;
The arable land will be ploughed by them,
And the poor folk will get their fill …
A straight road in steady decline, or a wheel in constant motion? It seems as if a dialogue
between these two visions is to be seen in our history and poetry from the first, a dialogue
‘without end, without respite’. Piobaireachd Dhomhnaill Duibh is one of our oldest surviving
songs, and is sometimes taken as a sort of affirmation of the first of these visions:
Today went, today went,
Today went against us,
Today went, today went,
Today went against us,
Today went, today went,
Today went against us,
O, today went, yesterday went,
Every day went against us.
But an answer to this comes in the twentieth century in the ending of The Cuillin, the famous
poem by Sorley MacLean (himself bard to the Gaelic Society of Inverness):
Beyond the lochs of the blood of the children of men
Beyond the frailty of the plain and the labour of the mountain,
Beyond poverty, consumption, fever, agony,
Beyond hardship, wrong, tyranny, distress,
Beyond misery, despair, hatred, treachery,
Beyond guilt and defilement; watchful,
Heroic, the Cuillin is seen
Rising on the other side of sorrow.
Now we return to the work of the poets in the Jacobite era, to explore what the poems and
songs can tell us about the bond between the Gaels and the Stewarts. If we accept the
testimony of the government and the Hanoverians, the Gaels were willing to take up arms
against them because they were natural-born rebels: savages consumed by poverty and
greed, only interested in plundering others, and slaves to the will of the clan chiefs. We are
wearily familiar with this caricature, although it still exerts an influence over the
representation of the Gaels in the Jacobite era, in literature and elsewhere. The literature
often adduces a further reason that drew the Gaels together, namely hatred of the
Campbells. The world of Gaelic Jacobite song is almost completely different, and although
we are conscious that what we have here is an imagining of another kind which is not
necessarily synonymous with the truth, it may be said that the Gaelic voices of the poets
bring us closer to home, while also encapsulating the precious range of views already
From beginning to end ‘royalism’ is the prime cause for supporting the Stewarts. They are
the legitimate kings of Scotland of old, and thus it is with them that lies the right to the crown,
and justice. According to Aonghas Mac Alasdair Ruaidh, the Glencoe Bard, speaking of
James VII, this justification supersedes religion or the lack of it:
It is not permissible for us to turn aside from,
Or suppress our temporal king,
For, from the moment he was first conceived,
He was the true rightful heir.
No difference of faith,
Or even lack of faith, may draw us away;
Without legal authority,
It is a treacherous thing for us to renounce him.
Although the view of Iain mac Ailein, the MacLean bard, gives greater weight to divine right,
we register that he, no less than Aonghas mac Alasdair Ruaidh, identifies something which
may act as a restraint upon loyalty to the king: legal authority in the one case, and tyranny in
the other:
In my opinion – I may have little understanding,
But I shall take leave to express it –
Whomever God appoints king,
We ought to submit to him …
And, though he follow his own free will,
So long as he does not oppress us,
Do you think it either lawful or reasonable
To jump at his throat?
Although the Act of Union between Scotland and England in 1707 gave impetus to the
Jacobites, it made for a difference in the way they presented themselves in Lowlands and
Highlands. In the Lowlands, where they found it harder to make headway with the general
population, the opportunity was taken to advance the Stewarts as the means of expunging
the Act, and the hardship and misrule attendant upon it. Despite this, popular support
remained lukewarm, and Lowland Scots protested against their condition in ways other than
following the Stewarts. In the Highlands the right of the Stewarts remained at the heart of the
rhetoric of the poets, but now at times in a new nationalist dress: identification with Scotland
and the status of Scotland. Here is the patriotic vision of first Iain mac Ailein and then Sìleas
na Ceapaich at the time of the Rising of 1715:
When the best-born of the Lowlands
Advance with all their fame,
Many snorting horses
Will prance with delight;
Englishmen will lose
In spite of all they’ve done,
And the Frenchman with his camp
Will be ready right behind them …
And Sìleas:
But arise, Scotland, as one,
Before the English cut your throats,
Since they have robbed you for gold
Of your credit and your possessions
Which is not in your pocket today.
Iain Dubh is willing to acknowledge that there is a question mark over whether the Jacobite
forces will come together as they should:
If all the brave warriors
Were together at one time,
With one definite plan
And no slant or digression,
All as sure as one person
And fixed on the prize,
To the threats of the English
They will firmly reply.
In similar vein, after the Jacobites lost the best opportunity they were ever to have at the
Battle of Sheriffmuir, Sìleas na Ceapaich is willing to criticise the nobles who fled, and even
James VIII the Old Pretender, who had not arrived in time:
I would tell you a reasoned story
If I were given a hearing now:
That people were killing each other on behalf of King James,
While he himself had not come from France …
The Marquis of Huntly with the well-shod horses
Fled back out of the rank;
The Earl of Seaforth of the precious banners,
It were shameful to tell of what happened to him …
Coming finally to the ’45, in a song made before the Prince’s arrival, Aonghas mac Alasdair
Ruadh, the Glencoe Bard – if it is he – reiterates that right, justice and God are with the
Stewarts, but prefaces this with frank admission of the dangers which the Jacobite rank and
file will face:
Let not sound of gunfire
Make your flesh cautious,
Horo, make ready to go;
Nor muskets of dark-blue
Destroy aught your hoping,
Horo, make ready to go.
When that sound has passed over
Your danger has ended,
You’ll be at close quarters
As was ever your custom;
Let each man be enduring,
Thrusting, and striking,
Mighty, and valiant,
And no foe shall abide you,
Horo, make ready to go.
It shall give you great courage
That your own cause is righteous,
Horo, make ready to go;
Your conscience is with you,
And justice will aid you,
Horo, make ready to go.
’Tis not thus with our foemen,
Though they are very powerful,
Their conscience will plague them
Since to George they have yielded;
You will be steadfast,
Patient in suffering,
Fearless in danger,
Take God to protect you,
Horo, make ready to go.
In another song, Nighean Aonghais Òig follows in the footsteps of Sìleas na Ceapaich as
she attempts to persuade the chief of the MacDonalds of Sleat to take part in the rising, to
no avail as it proved:
But, O noble Sir Alasdair,
Will you not soon come forward;
To me, long is your waiting
Without following after;
With thy numerous standards,
Many a hundred in thy party,
Since thou’rt wont to be wounding
Let thy keen hounds go forward.
Thy clan is in sorrow
That thou now hesitatest,
Since ’tis elbow to elbow
Gives best strength in danger;
For what cause ’neath the heavens
To which you set shoulder exists,
That you could not be
Foremost in winning?
In the songs of Alexander MacDonald, there is now a unity between the right of the
Jacobites and nationalism, as he criticises in the one breath the rough treatment meted out
to the Stewart kings since they moved to England, and the Act of Settlement of 1701 by
which the English parliament accepted the Hanoverian succession:
O Charles son of James, son of James, son of Charles,
With thee I’d go gladly, when the call sounds for marching,
And not with that vile herd, the offspring of swine! ...
And had not the English betrayed and forsaken thee,
The crown had been gained for King James with thy courage,
In spite of the beast and his followers vile …
You have broken the law that was kept down the ages,
By disowning King James to gain favour with William,
Soon after you’d murdered our goodly King Charles;
Only one of the Stewarts wore the crown with your goodwill,
Of the true rightful line of the family royal,
That you slew not by treason, poison, or axe …
O, thin’s the string, King George,
On which you harped to win three realms;
And false the Act which clad you with the kingship over us;
Full fifty folk and more
Have better claims, and truer blood
Than you, in Europe’s continent;
Remote and bent and weak
The female branch from which you came,
Far distant on the tree.
Alexander MacDonald is reckoned to be the foremost Gaelic poet of the ’45, but it is not with
his voice that I wish to conclude; or with the voice of the soldier, John Roy Stewart,
lamenting his comrades who fell at Culloden as ‘true brave Fingalian heroes’; but with the
voice of a woman and widow, who laments but the one man, her own:
And there stood not at Culloden
A braver man in your mould
My young bright love.
Cairìstiona Ferguson – if it is she – recounts the time of waiting until it became clear that her
husband would not return:
I believed for a while
That my husband was living
And that you would come home
With a joke and a greeting;
But the time has gone past
And I don’t see your likeness,
And until I am buried
Your love will not leave me,
My bright young love.
In an objective voice which reminds us of Sìleas na Ceapaich and Nighean Aonghais Òig,
she puts the Jacobite cause and the right of the Stewarts in the scales with her husband,
and rejects them:
Och young Charles Stewart,
Your cause has destroyed me,
You’ve taken all I had
In a war fought for you;
It’s not for cattle or kinsfolk
I’m distraught, but my husband
Since he left me bereft
With nothing in the world but a shirt,
My young bright love.
Who now will lift the sword
Or cause the throne to be filled
Is scarce my concern
Since my first love lives not;
But how could I find in my nature
To deny what I want
When my desire is so strong
To put in place of my good king
My young bright love?
Who among us would be able to say to this woman that Culloden was not the end of a road,
or that she would ever see the Cuillin rising on the other side of sorrow?
KATEY BOAL: Thank you. I really appreciate you taking the time to come and speak to us. I
hope everyone has enjoyed that as much as I did.
GAELIC PSALM SINGING: [set to pictures of the 2019 anniversary and the laying of the
wreaths in 2021]
MAOILIOS CAIMBEUL (in Gaelic): When I wrote this poem, I had a picture in my mind of
what had happened in the two or three centuries after Culloden. No doubt, Culloden had a
massive effect – although it was by no means the only thing – on the nature of today’s
Highlands. Good and bad things happened, but, as it says in the poem, ‘the mountains will
remain’. ‘The mountains’ represent the things that cannot be taken from us, what comes
from the heart, the most precious values in the lives of people, faithfulness, loyalty and love
for God and country. No government can take these away from us.
Loss and Gain
They came, first, and deprived us
of our freedom,
the freedom to fight and protect.
Things were moving, improving,
better cannon and new ways of killing,
the tacksman exiled
and the chiefs with love of gold.
But the mountains remained
and the deer were still on Creag Uanach.
They came and took away
our life and living on the land,
the best soil for rocks and turf,
But still we kept the tie between us and the earth,
scraping a living from sheaf and gleaning,
milk from the cow, and when necessary,
trout from the stream.
They came and gave us
a new education with new equipment.
No need any more for crofts,
for cattle or the planting
of seed in the ground.
But the mountains remained.
They deprived us of the ancient knowledge,
the old tales of the old ways,
our heritage, and in their place they put
new songs to make a new heart.
They gave us cars, supermarkets,
gear without end, development boards,
fish farms, shellfish farms,
deer farms, nuclear power,
electric light, water on tap,
visitors and people who stay,
people who stay and people who frequent.
They came and gave us.
But the mountains will remain.
They gave us money,
all the city’s mod cons,
sin and grace,
rubbish and polluted water.
Great wide roads through the glens.
They found what they sought –
nature enslaved and power
over life and death.
A finger on the button.
Like a god.
Isn’t it wonderful how well you have done?
But the mountains will remain.
KATIE BOAL: The story of Culloden is universal. It is a story of war, violence and the
communities that emerged from it. These combine to create a sense of place that you can
really sense here on the battlefield and we are actively working to preserve it. Culloden is a
site that has a future and, with your help, we can look after it for the folks to come.
MURDO CAMPBELL (in Gaelic): We have held this service in remembrance of those that
lost their lives and those that suffered in the aftermath of the battle. This was the last battle
that was fought on British soil. The culture and the language of the Gaels was under threat
at that time. Our culture is still very much alive and our Gaelic language is being resurrected
by our young people along with Gaelic bodies and the expansion of Gaelic schools. We
applaud them. The Gaelic Society of Inverness is proud to be able to bring this to the notice
of the wider world.
I hope that if we are spared that we will be able to hold our service at Culloden as in
previous years on 16th April 2022 and that some of you will be able to attend. Many thanks
for your attendance on line.

Our live afternoon event sessions, with Q&As

Afternoon event: part 1


KATEY BOAL: Welcome, welcome everyone,
I'm so pleased to have folks joining us for our commemoration event.
We're just gonna give you a moment to go get yourself a cup of tea,
get yourself settled in and we will be starting very shortly.
And I'll hand off to Raoul Curtis-Machin at that point.
But, please get yourself ready for what is looking to be a really interesting morning of talks.

- Well, welcome everybody to
"Culloden - a place worth protecting",
our online event to mark the 275th Anniversary of the Battle of Culloden.
Thank you all for joining us.
We had started planning this event well in advance and of course with the tragic events
with Duke of Edinburgh last week, this meant that it was a too complicated job for us to actually cancel and try and shift this event,
so, we've rejigged the content so we will finish in plenty of time to mark the sad funeral.
So, thanks again for joining us.
We have, basically, a game of two very exciting halves this morning,
which takes us through some of the most exciting research that we are starting to uncover about the battle,
from the interpretation of the LiDAR data and Derek Alexander will present on that.
And we also have Professor Christopher Duffy's latest map research and account research looking at the battle and the various troop movements and actions during the battle.
This is of vital importance to us at Culloden.
I should have said earlier, sorry. I'm just the operations manager, I'm not expert on Culloden.
It's my job to keep everything running here, but we absolutely rely 100% on the latest research
and the latest analysis to help us inform the public about the battle of Culloden, and to a certain extent to bust the myths and to try our best to be accurate when we can.
I know we do make mistakes from time to time, but, research like this gives us the best possible opportunity to actually set the record straight on Culloden and tell a broader audience about what happened here on this day.
So, without further ado, I'm gonna introduce Professor Christopher Duffy.
Christopher read history at Balliol College, Oxford, then he lectured in War Studies
at the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst,
the British equivalent of West Point in the States,
while always maintaining private interests
in 18th century warfare.
Christopher retired on hitting the age bar in 1996
and he has had a very strong
and well loved connection from our side
with the National Trust for Scotland at Culloden since 1998.
He's a great supporter of all the things
we're trying to do here,
and we owe him a massive debt of gratitude.
He joined the English Court Witness Service
as a volunteer in 2002,
working at a National High Security Court from 2014.
Forensic evidence has had a major effect
on his methods of research
and we will learn more about that approach
and where it's got us in our understanding of the battle.
So, over to you Christopher, thank you.
- Thank you very much, Raoul.
I'm facing some very unpalatable truths.
I'm not going to beat about the bush.
They are faced in the nearest future
with the loss of the whole of the battlefield,
which lies outside the keeping
of the National Trust for Scotland.
The pace of development is unrelenting,
and response has not been tremendously effective.
I'm afraid I've lost my vision at the present time,
could I have the back on the screen?
There we are, thank you very much.
"Culloden in Physical Microhistory.
What there is to defend. What there is to acquire."
And a little note on the bottom.
for historically-based assessment
of the impact of threatened development
on any point of the Battlefield of Culloden."
Now this idea, a good idea or bad idea,
occurred to me in a germ form about three years ago.
I thought there should be a single,
accessible point of reference,
which anybody could go to to get an instant read-back
on special development at any typical point of Culloden.
Presented to them in a form, which if they desired,
they could put before the Culloden South Planning Committee
of the Highland Council in the due form.
I'll give them findings on this.
Because at the moment the only thing which
counts in the so-called planning system,
in fact, planning anarchy,
is objections entered in due form
against any specific development
with the Inverness South Planning Committee
of the Highland Council.
It is the only thing which counts.
Even this cannot stand necessarily,
because even if the Highland Council
decides against any particular development,
the case will be carried by a developer
to the Department of Planning and Environmental Affairs
of the Scottish Government.
And this DPEA, in its wisdom, will appoint an adjudicator,
a reporter, to make a legally binding adjudication.
This reporter will be a civil engineer or surveyor.
His knowledge of the battle could be written on a
airline boarding card and still leave plenty of space.
I would have the infamous example
of what happened at Culloden.
In that case the reporter was a civil engineer
whose background was in Waste Industrial Disposal.
In effect you could say,
Culloden was treated as a waste disposal site.
Uncannily, one of the word program processors
renders Drummossie as Dumpsite,
and unless you watch out for that when you're typing out,
what your printer actually works,
you can send things off say to the
Drummossie War Hotel labeled Dumpsite Hotel.
Not a good thing to do.
This notion stayed with me.
I regretted very much from the start taking it on
'cause I hadn't realised what it actually implied.
Far more work than I had envisaged.
If I had known what was involved
I would have walked away immediately.
Most disturbing, and involved me very soon
in something I didn't want to do,
was to actually reassess the course of the battle,
which was very far from my intention.
Could I have the next one please?
Next slide please.
Thank you very much.
Let's have a look at this slide
which I hope is there on your screen.
We have adapted from the Ordnance Survey,
the battlefield as it stands today.
Best way to start is driving up the B9006
from the West or the left on your screen.
The ground gradually ascends, describes a curve,
which is the deviation of the road carried out in the 1980s
to carry it north of the supposed
Northern visage of the battlefield,
and then it actually resumes it's original course.
And this road corresponds
with the original Moor Road of 1746.
In the middle we have the property
in the keeping of the National Trust,
outlined in green, with various key points.
And this as you can see,
covers only really a relatively small area
of the whole battle area, which,
it can pretty well define as the whole area
on this particular screen.
You have familiar points; the visitor centre,
the car park, Leanach Cottage,
Well of the Dead, and so on.
So, the modern field.
The problem is development, obviously,
and I've added in red some of the more obvious intrusions.
At at the top we have the infamous Viewhill,
which the authorities assured us in their wisdom
when they granted this permission,
will be invisible from the visitor centre.
But we know they're wrong.
Not only is it visible from the visitor centre,
it's visible from the far side of the River Nairn,
you can see on the bottom right-hand corner of the screen.
So much for the authority.
I'll ask you to look in particular
at the left centre of the map,
and agricultural development we have here
which can be even more damaging
than outright construction of a housing estate.
We have a very intrusive new barn set up
and a new agricultural road,
which turns roughly South-Southwest, West-Southwest,
and executes an acute left-hand turn,
to the neighborhood of the present King's Stables.
I'll ask you to remember this road
when you see how it continues on.
And this road is going to be very important indeed
from the aspect of conservation.
Now, I'd assumed when I started this work
that there would be plenty of actual information available.
In fact, the information available on Culloden
in original sources and secondary literature
is unequaled in European history,
until we come to the Battle of Waterloo
or the American Civil War.
Tiny battle, but massive in terms of
actual documentation and secondary description.
The trouble is, there's very little specific detail in it.
If you go back to the original sources,
the only specific features ever mentioned by anybody,
apart from the general bogginess,
are the two sets of walled enclosures.
And I was completely stuck
in the couple of weeks of undertaking my work.
I then went to the last resource, which was maps.
So, I think here, I'm going to agree with Derek, are,
probably are almost certainly
maps that are our greatest single source of information.
And I'm going to start with
the most important map of them all.
The next slide please.
This is the Ordnance Survey,
first of the kind of anywhere in Britain,
carried out under the supervision of the
order of Ordnances chief draftsman,
a civilian, William Roy,
at the express command of the Duke of Cumberland.
Between 1747 and 1755, the express intended purpose,
preventing the army getting lost in Scotland
which it had done many times before.
General impression, I think, there's very little there.
Very few landmarks.
The only really saner ones
are the ones who associated with Culloden House
and its walled enclosures, Culloden Park enclosure.
And, can you see the adjacent jutting out part
towards the top of the estate,
and something which looks like
a number "3" written in red?
Well, that's Culloden House.
That actually stuck out from the
Eastern Culloden Park's wall.
This has all, as far as we know,
completely vanished from the landscape today.
But attempts to reconstitute it are extremely important.
I'll just ask you to look a little bit at a little road
which is a stretch of the Moor Road,
looking past the Southern edge of the Culloden Parks Wall.
But for William Roy the main road at this period,
is something which is almost completely vanished now.
When you look at the bottom left-hand corner of the map,
we have double parallel lines,
the road up to the commanding height of Balvraid,
and gently downhill curving gently to the right
and on past the Little Leanach Cottage.
Little Leanach clump with houses, and on,
getting most of the landscape
which is then just beyond Meikle Lionach.
And this for William Roy,
was the principal road of the period,
and that is going to have
a significant effect on the battle,
an effect which has so far not actually been
picked up by other historians.
They have the light, classically, even those days,
falling from the Northwest.
And you can see the ground falls away quite steeply
towards the bottom right-hand corner of the map,
towards the valley of the River Nairn,
more gently towards the North.
But the most important feature of the whole map
is the area of bog,
it's kind of looking like a dismembered octopus
to the bottom right and centre right of the map.
This is probably the original Cuil Lodair,
yellow bog of Culloden,
and that was going to exercise a major effect
on the form the battle actually took.
Now, the Roy map is the only one with a scale, 1:36,000.
All the other maps you're going to be looking at
have little or no indication of scale.
At least, I found a very simple way within one minute,
of identifying what the scale was in units of 800 meters.
Then there's a business of magnetic declination,
adjusting Map North to Real North.
And the magnetic declination in this part of Scotland
in 1746 was 18.3 degrees west of Grid North.
So, once you got the scale that's fine,
and then you pivot the map,
any map to the right 18.3 degrees
and you get coherence with present Real North.
The next one please.
Now, this is interpreting what we've seen
in terms of the ups and downs and the road systems.
Now towards the top left of the Culloden House Wall,
The Moor Road, the present B9006, running close under it,
then continuing on towards the region of Little Leanach.
At Little Leanach it's joined by
what I'll call the Ridge Road,
the one we saw on William Roy's map,
coming up from the Southwest,
running through the Leanach enclosure, very important point,
and merging with the Moor Road,
just short of Little Leanach.
And here we have the bog transferred to this map.
And one branch of the bog actually reaches
into the Trust bubble
You see it there, very close to the bit
where it rises to the cairn,
enters the boggy hollow by the Well of the Dead,
and at that time continued as a feeder of the Great Bog.
This little stream is now being diverted
to the North but via a canal,
but originally, it ran to the left.
And looking at a li...
Looking at recent LiDAR photograph
which I then showed it yesterday
and comparing this with Google map, there's, I think,
something of a hint of change of vegetation,
which you can even trace at the present time
corresponding with this particular branch of the map.
Next one please.
Here we start with a pretty stupid map,
but a very important one.
It was scribbled by Colonel Joseph Yorke,
one of the aide-de-camps to the Duke of Cumberland,
probably within hours of the battle.
And this reflects what's important to him
and probably also to the captain
about their impressions in the battle.
Before they engage in any kind of (indistinct)
of any fantasy cartography.
We have, to the North, we see the Culloden Parks,
and the Moor Roads skirting,
just almost touching the South Eastern salient.
It inclines North and follows, skirts the line of bogs,
which here look like strings of sausages
but are in fact William Roy's bogs,
as he showed in much more detail in the map we've just seen.
He has the Jacobite Army on the left,
forming up in advance of the Garden Parks Wall,
and the Hanoverian Party on the right.
Next map please.
Looking at a more sensible map,
we have the one by John Finlayson
who was the commander of the artillery
of the Jacobite's in the battle.
And his map, we don't know when it was completed,
but probably by about 1751.
He was very soon amnestied after the rising.
He was described as an instrument,
mathematical instrument maker of Edinburgh,
and he was the one person with an opportunity
to revisit the site of the battle,
which he almost certainly did.
And we have here,
what's sort of like a rather confusing sets of blobs,
but he provided a very detailed key
which is just off this picture here
which enables us to identify exactly what they were.
And this is actually very, very important
for purposes of our work.
Just want to check one or two details of this.
Now, we have a matching map by the
cartographer of the Duke of Cumberland.
Thomas Sandby is cartographer and artist
and his map, again with that of Finlayson,
was the best detail we have for the
course and alignment and the positions of the armies.
Now I wasn't, I'm not able to show the map by Thomas Sandby
because my one available copy was rather muzzy,
but Derek will be showing you a much better print of it
when he starts his talk.
Next one please.
Now, this map was completed
about two and a half or three weeks ago.
I had been waiting in vain for
news of Historic Environment Scotland,
primarily for it's work on identifying
the Culloden Parks Wall,
and I had to go for broke on what I thought
was the best information.
Now, just orientation,
we have the Culloden Parks Wall on the left,
the Culwhiniac enclosure,
it's up to the wall there on the right,
and the (indistinct) Leanach enclosure just standing off.
The usual bog there.
And we have the forming up position of the Jacobite Army.
Now this is something I have not been able to identify,
how exactly, what exactly the extent of the army was
at this stage.
My aim had been, for useful purposes, to trace
actions and geography within a maximum of 10 of 100 meters.
That was my aim, to be of any use.
I wasn't able to do it at this
forming up position simply because the
maps and comments are so contradictory.
Then we find the Jacobite Army merging into the open
and extending into the left.
Again, a lot more work actually needs to be done
on the actual composition of these so-called
clan regiments in particular,
because though they bear the name of different clans,
in fact they're of a very mixed population
as it has been identified by recent research
by Dr. Darren Layne of Oregon.
Now in all this, I was just going to touch very briefly,
on areas of particular interest and reassess them.
And I'll leave at the moment, the armies there,
and turn to what Cumberland had in mind.
First of all, he found it very, very difficult
to approach the battlefield,
because of the way it was obstructed by the Great Bog,
and he had to cram his armies to do a single massive column
and approach the battlefield from the Northeast.
Eventually, his right hand column,
emerging into the present National Trust property
found what was come to describe at discontinuous in the bog,
and this enabled him deploy into
two main lines of battle and a reserve.
Prince Charles wanted the Lord George Murray
to launch the army in an attack at this stage.
But Lord George said no.
A French officer with Prince Charles said,
"Sir, we are finished."
I think he'd probably used more earthy a term at the time.
Now, I'm just going to highlight
the main areas of risk test.
Now, as you all probably know,
Cumberland detached a pretty big command
of two regiments of Dragoons
and supporting Campbell Infantry
to execute a major flanking move around the South
of the Jacobite station, to emerge from the South
and hit the Jacobite Army in the rear.
Now, I'm convinced here that the evidence of the map
and the documentation speaks with bon voice
and I placed the scene of this engagement
very close to the Culwhiniac Park Wall
converging on the farmstead of Culchunaig.
Now the man in local command of this move
was Major General Brand who had
just written the army's full rule book.
But in December, he'd run into a massive Jacobite ambush
(indistinct) Jacobites to Carlisle.
And he was ultra cautious.
The Jacobites, probably at the initiative of Lord George,
responded very quickly.
The Jacobite high command switched
two high policy units, Elcho's, two from Lifeguards,
and a squadron of the elite Franco-Irish
Fitzjames' Cuirassiers, Heavy Cavalry.
Now, the interesting thing about this in geography terms
is the way the ground falls away in broad steps or terraces.
And here the intervention of viewshed analysis,
will render in precise detail
as to when each party came in view of the other.
And it wasn't until the English Dragoons
approached near the top of the slope, they could actually,
the moment they could see
the ground in front of them was bare,
'cause the main Jacobite Army was already advancing
towards the Hanoverian.
But it wasn't bare and empty for long,
because as we've seen,
the elite Jacobite cavalry was detached South
to confront them on the far side of a little stream.
At the same time, the Hanoverian cavalry came under fire
from the right flank from two good (indistinct) battalions
which the Jacobite had stationed
immediately under the Park Wall.
Now, if you look very carefully,
the second Hanoverian line,
you could see the right hand troop of Kerr's cavalry
executing a quarter wheel to the left.
This is because they came under flanking fire
from Stonywood's battalion of
this rather good goaded infantry.
Now this troop didn't suffer heavy casualties,
only three killed,
but a massive number of horses brought down,
which cost it up to 40% of its strength,
and the problem is the Hanoverian cavalry
retreats south out of sight.
And viewshed analysis will show us exactly
where it actually went out of sight.
Now, let's carry on the main battle.
The Jacobite Army advances,
and it speeds in its advance via the Ridge Road
running actually through the Leanach enclosure,
with the results we see here,
hitting at full velocity, the regiment of Barrell,
and bending back that of Monroe.
The Jacobite forces engage with the Atholl brigade
and the first class regiment of the Campbells.
But looking very closely together at the maps
of Finlayson and Sandby we can be struck almost to the meter
what happened all the way along the rest of the line.
Finlayson breaks down the Jacobite forces into five columns,
in fact they're probably more in a wedge shape.
And as you can see, one and two are in
hand-to-hand contact with the enemy.
Three and four, at greater distance,
are still within musket range of the enemy,
which came to, that time, 1,500 meters.
Column number five can be identified with the
load end regiments of Perth and Glenbucket,
and the Clan Donald, advancing themselves to be
the elite of the Highland Army.
They're out of musketry range fire of the enemy,
but well within artillery range.
Now, surely a misunderstanding now happened.
We don't know exactly why the Jacobites
extended their army to the left, maybe to keep contact,
establish contact with the bog, we don't know.
But Cumberland completely misinterpreted this.
Now the unit on the right hand flank
or the first line (indistinct)
when the Jacobites first advance was occupied
by the regiments of the Royal Scots
Now, Cumberland had received multiple warnings
that these men were not be trusted.
Thus, on their way from Ireland
and otherwhere from the North of England
they had repeatedly said, en masse,
they were not going to fight their fellow Scots.
So Cumberland, boxes it in by reliable troops,
the regiment of Pulteney he brings up on the Royal Scots,
right, brings out the regiment of the Batereau
immediately behind the Royal Scots,
and he switches his cavalry
to extend his line to the far left.
So, the Royal Scots whatever their private inclinations
had no possibility of actually downing tools, as it were,
when their friends from the Highlands
were advancing against.
Now, Cumberland and Prince Charles at this point,
considered the crucial points of this battle
was not the scrum around Leanach Cottage,
but up here in the North,
and the Clan Donald to be reigned to attack.
They didn't fight, in fact,
tried to carry out another probing attacks
in an attempt to goad the Redcoats into
responding into a panic.
But Redcoats are now so strong
that there's no possibility of breaking through.
The Clan Donald didn't like the look
of the way the cavalry is forming
out on their far left.
If they had looked to their right,
they'd have found the of the rest
of the Jacobite Army was in retreat.
Now, Finlayson shows incentive from that,
these hollow blue oblongs,
and that from him was the way the initial stage
of the retreat of the Jacobites started.
I find that difficult to believe
because I can't imagine how the Clan Donald
would go South rather than go Southwest.
Now, disaster was felt, total disaster.
We know heavy casualties
were incurred by the Jacobites in retreat
by pursuing enemy cavalry
which has been discussed so well by Murray Pittock.
But this was short of a the complete wipeout
and the Clan Donald, largest part of it,
was able to break free and reassemble
in the area of the old Castle Hill, South of Inverness.
Why was this?
This is another passage which demands reevaluation.
One of the reasons was the presence of an elite,
small battalion of Irish infantry from the French service.
If you look, if you see the Southeastern angle
with Culloden Parks Wall,
just look about centimeter to the East-Northeast
and you find this little Irish battalion.
And by an act of self-sacrifice, it delayed,
at considerable cost to itself, the advancing Hanoverians.
Typically dangerous to them were the advancing cavalry.
But it wasn't the whole story.
From here, we return, after a long time,
to the Southeast angle of the Culloden Park Wall.
Could I have the next one please?
Now, we're going to look in detail
at the Culloden Parks Wall in two perspectives.
One from an officer of the Hanoverian Engineers,
Daniel Paterson, Royal Engineers.
And he shows a cannon opening fire
from this angle of the wall against the Cobham's Dragoons.
Now, the location of this wall I've had trouble with
because I've been waiting until three weeks ago
on news of any progress of Historic Environments Scotland's
archeological research into the wall.
They could give me no idea,
when I first asked them a couple of years ago,
when the work would be ready.
They were obviously not in a state to do so.
I had hoped that they would give me a notice of their,
of when the work would be completed,
but they're still working on it.
And work like this,
when your study is going to have a form
of an official document, cannot be hurried.
So I don't, I've got no position on that.
So I had to by what seemed to me,
the unanimous verdict out of the maps
which is to place it just North of the Parks Wall
in the immediate vicinity of the present King's Stables.
I should have mentioned when I showed William Roy's map
that the King's Stables didn't exist there,
it was just bare countryside.
Now let's look at this map in detail.
Paterson, as the viewpoint of the engineer,
chose it to be a very carefully prepared
field fortification.
Stones piled up on the outside, covering gaps
which the French gun detachment had knocked in the wall,
one, a breach just to the East,
just the North of the actual salient,
one, in the actual salient corner of the wall itself,
and a third facing to the Southeast.
Now this particularly, it was a properly formed embrasure,
with protective banks splaying out on either side.
So, formidable earth piece of fortification.
And Paterson had the gun here,
only had a single gun
but it switched between embrasures.
He has it opening the fire at a range of 600 meters
against the Cobham's Dragoons.
Now let's look at a companion map by
Jasper Leigh Jones of the Royal Artillery
and he shows the Hanovarian response,
which is absolutely massive.
Cumberland brings up roughly half it's available artillery.
Very roughly, four cannon and three Coehorn mortars.
Now these were light portable mortars
but very devastating in their effect.
And they had this really nerveless task
of wiping out this French gun detachment
and their solitary gun at very close range,
the nearest being about something like 150 meters.
So, cannon shot concentrated against this
Southeast facing embrasure, three pound of cannon shot,
and three Coehorn mortars at high angle
so their mortar bombs could descend inside the enclosure
and explode.
We don't know what happens to this gun detachment point,
probably wiped out.
But this had a major deterrent effect on the Hanoverians.
Now, the next one please.
Now here, we have a chart of the gun of this type,
a new type of light artillery introduced by Marshal Sachs.
This plan actually shows it without its wheels,
it's a quite very neat piece of gun design.
A very compact, really quite small piece,
but firing a cannonball weighing 4 1/4 each pounds,
but very accurate, so formidable piece of artillery.
I conclude with the last slide now, please.
Here we have Thomas Sandby in his role of artist
depicting this angle of the wall.
The troops you see here are the Jacobite Army
in their original position.
It's a very neat drawing as it shows one breach
in the Eastern side of the wall.
Now, it's very difficult to see on this picture,
he actually depicts this light French cannon,
a very small piece here actually, but,
when he drew with his pictures,
Sandby used a lot of artistic impression.
And it wasn't artistic to show all the breaches in the wall.
And then you have imaginary mountains
in the background of the scene.
This is a very tidied up picture which,
of what at the time of the battle,
must have seemed like a corner of Stalingrad.
The three breaches in the walls,
this is about spent cannonballs,
splinters and mortar bombs, and fragments of human anatomy.
And the Duke of Cumberland knew about scenes of this kind
and he once spoke with very considerable perception.
"If people", he said, "military art is wrong.
Military art is wrong because it gives no idea
what you would actually see on a battle.
If people ever knew what a battle looked like
nations would have never ever go to war again."
And there, I'll sign off.
- [Raoul] Thank you very much, Christopher.
That was fascinating.
And I completely see where the forensic skills now come in.
It's a never-ending piece of work to try and understand
more and more about this battle.
So, thank you so much.
There'll be a chance for everybody to give questions
and we'll hopefully cover some of those
on the panel session at the end of the next bit.
I'm going to introduce you now to Derek Alexander.
- [Derek] Hello.
- Sorry, just realised I wasn't on video there.
I'm hoping you heard what I said.
I'm not gonna repeat it.
So, yes, I'm gonna introduce Derek Alexander
who is the Head of Archeology
at National Trust of Scotland.
Derek studied prehistoric archeology
at the University of Edinburgh.
He specialized in the later prehistory of temperate Europe.
He graduated in 1990,
worked for the university's commercial
archeology unit for 10 years.
He joined the Trust in 2000 as the
West Regional Archeologist
and was appointed Head of Archeology in 2011.
A recent research has had a major focus
on the archeology of Jacobite Scotland
with field work in Glencoe and Glenshiel.
Over to you Derek, thank you.
- Thank you very much, Raoul,
good morning, ladies and gentlemen.
I'll just share my screen if I can do that?
Share from beginning.
Okay, can you see all that?
Give give me a thumbs up.
What I'm going to do this morning is a great,
I think it's an add on to what
Christopher has already outlined.
It's great to follow him,
because he has provided a wonderful overview
of the military history of the battle of Culloden,
and that's something I wouldn't attempt to do.
I'm an archeologist.
My thing is I'm a landscape detective, a landscape curator,
so I'm looking for changes in landscapes,
and from a conservation point of view
that's very important because,
if you want to protect the significant items
in the landscape you need to know what they are
and what the significance is,
and whether what has come before
as well as what you want to pass on to the future.
This first slide is Culloden battlefield
from the line of the Old Road
as it passed through the battlefield
heading towards the commemorative cairn.
And you can just make out the flags at that time
of the Jacobite line.
And for me here, there's a nice sign in the foreground
tells you that it's a battlefield.
So we know that bit's protected,
but it's obviously a lot bigger than that, as we'll see.
I have to say, at the outset,
this is very much synthetic work.
It's pulling on lots and lots of different research.
Raoul has already mentioned the importance of research
and as a conservation organisation, again,
knowing what is there and the significance of it
is key to protection and to promotion,
and to providing people's opportunity
to experience that on the ground.
So we rely heavily on lots and lots of researchers
and I've just drawn your attention
to some of the most recent work,
and from an archeological point of view
Tony Pollard's edited book on
"Culloden, The Archeology and History
of the Last Clan Battle" is a fantastic pulling together
of the archeological material.
And of course, Christopher,
who's just spoken and very eloquently previous to me,
his wonderful book on the entire campaign of the
'45 "Fight For A Throne".
I recommend it to you.
There's thousands and lots and lots of different
publications out there for you to have a look at.
But as I go through,
I'll try and acknowledge the people
who have input research as we go.
And there's a thanks at the end as well for that,
because I am heavily drawing on other people's work
and that's very much the nature of what we do in the Trust.
Christopher has already suggested that, you know,
the key to understanding the battle is of course
that the map evidence combined with the documentary
and historic resources that tell us
about the actual events that happened.
And of course they all vary.
People who were involved on the ground,
on the Jacobites side,
and on the government British Army side
all had different viewpoints,
and some of them recorded them.
Not all of them were recorded.
If they were all recorded,
there'd be about 12,000 different accounts of the battle.
There isn't that.
But so we have to work with the documentary side
and with map evidence to try and come up
with as good an interpretation as we can.
And of course, there is lots of disagreements, and there's,
from the map evidence and the documentary sources
as Christopher has already pointed out,
they don't always match up.
But that's one of the exciting things
about history and archeology in Scotland,
and, in fact, across the world.
This is Sandby's map which shows quite nicely
the arrangement of troops.
I've rotated it so North is approximately
to the top of the screen here.
It's not quite, it's off to the right.
What it shows nicely is the arrangement
as both armies are leaning up.
But what I've marked there in the blue,
the two points in blue,
are the key points on the Culwhiniac enclosure
on the bottom left and the Culloden Parks at the top right
which effectively mark the lining up on,
at the start to the battle of the Jacobite front line.
The red dot at the back is what we often use
to position the government army,
and that's Old Leanach Cottage.
But there's lots of different interpretations
as Christopher has drawn our attention to.
And some recent work, as Christopher mentioned,
by Kevin Munro, Historic Environment Scotland,
he presented at a seminar we had
a few years ago at Culloden,
was to try and identify the location
using map based evidence of the Culloden Parks corner
and where it is.
And when you look at all the historic maps
and there are about 30 or 40 of them, different ones,
these are photocopies and sketches of some of them,
just laid on my flat floor,
and most of them are lined with the North
to the top of the screen here.
You can see the blue dots of the Culloden Parks
in the top left and the Culwhiniac enclosures below it,
mark the line consistently just about, anyway,
of the lining up of the Jacobite front line.
So, locating those on the ground is key,
'cause the Trust a few years ago
located the Culwhiniac enclosures and reconstructed
the Northeast or the Northern corner of it,
and it was marked in the boundary of the parishes,
the local parish boundaries.
It was preserved in that side of things.
There are lots of different maps, and as I said,
they don't all agree and they don't all translate
in terms of once you start trying to overlay them
onto the current maps.
There's a great deal of variety in terms of scale.
Here's a really good one from,
that shows the Culloden House in quite a strange enclosure
at the top left there, from a French officer.
And some of them, you know,
they match better with the current Ordnance Survey
than others, but again,
it's drawing to the precise locations,
and Christopher's maps that he showed previously
are a wonderful attempt to summarise
many of these different maps,
and he's looked at it from a very forensic point of view,
which is great.
Of course, our understanding of the battlefield
is important from our point of view,
from the Trust and from an archeological point of view,
to look at it since the battle
and its role in the commemoration of the battle.
So, Drummossie Moor since 1746.
There's a great chapter by Elspeth Masson and Jill Harden
in Pollard's book.
Obviously, this is the Ordnance Survey map.
This was published in 1903
but it marks the clan graves quite clearly,
each with their names attached.
Doesn't show very well there,
but when you color them in,
all the red marks the graves,
and the ones that you saw often get forgotten
are the ones along, the Campbell ones
further to the Southwest.
And this, the location of the commemorative cairn
and the line of the road that is knocked through
in the 1830s from Inverness to the Northeast.
And it cuts through, right through, the clan graveyard,
and bones were exposed at that time.
And of course, you can also see off to the right,
Old Leanach Cottage which marked just behind
the government front line.
Yeah, so the cairn and the graves
and the grave stones were added
by Forbes of Culloden in the 1880s.
So it's quite late,
but it's a commemorate marking of the spot,
and the cairn itself was constructed.
Although foundations were earlier,
the cairn as we see today was constructed in the 1880s.
I don't know if you saw Darren Layne's talk this morning.
It was fantastic.
And there is something special about Culloden
and people visited it quite quickly,
certainly in the 19th century.
And here's a lovely photograph of the late 19th century
showing the cairn and the road that was
knocked through the graveyard
and continued to be in use until the 1980s.
And on the right-hand side,
you maybe just make it beyond these figures
in the middle of the road, some of the grave stones there.
So, understanding how things have changed
and what is protected is key
for a conservation organisation.
This is, I'll come back to the background map,
which is our LiDAR survey of it,
but this is a summary of the Trust's ownership.
In the centre here is the old road
and in the middle the bits
that came into our ownership first of all
the ground around Old Leanach
and then the cottage itself,
the commemorative cairn and the clan graves.
And Christopher mentioned the King's Stables
out to the west there,
close to where Jacobite left-wing was anchored.
In 1945, Cumberland Stone
and the little patch of ground there came into our care.
And then in 1981, the conifer plantations
were given to us from the Forestry Commission
and here you can see the surrounding
mature conifer plantation that had been removed
by the 1980s.
But you can see how it hid a good chunk of the battlefield
and the views from the commemorative cairn
were incredibly restricted.
Finally, or not finally
because we have those other bits that have been added,
but probably a big chunk of important ground
was the field of the English.
The open area of agricultural land
which lies to the Southwest of the current visitor centre.
So that's a piecemeal expansion
of our landholding over time.
And of course with that has come an understanding
of how we can manage it to open up views,
and we also get an idea of how tourists
changed their visits to the sites
and what the focus of visitor concentration was
because here on the left-hand side we have the cairn,
the commemorative cairn and the graveyard.
You can see some of the stones
just in the central foreground.
And then you can see in the middle,
Achnacarry Cottage, built in 1934.
And just to the right of that
you'll see the roof of Old Leanach here.
And just the newly constructed,
what was our old visitor centre, just offscreen there.
Achnacarry was effectively after the commemorative cairn
and clan graveyard area was a sort of visitor focus.
It served cups of tea, it became a tea shop,
about 8,000 cups of tea, something like that,
were served in one year.
The Trust bought it and demolished it
in order to improve the views from there,
and there was quite good discussion of that whole process
of how bits have ground have come and gone
and how views have been opened up.
So I think a very positive thing to get rid of that cottage.
I think that the battlefield is a much better visit
without that cottage being there.
And of course, then finally it was demolished in 1972,
the idea was because this new visitor centre
which is our old visitor centre,
had been built besides the the existing road,
which in the bottom right-hand side of this, these images,
you can see quite clearly that the old road
still existing through the clan grave area.
And that was only moved in the 1980s
to further to the North as Christopher mentioned.
But you can see the Old Leanach dwarfed
by this white, brightly painted building
in the middle of the battlefield.
And we just forget that just how, you know,
how imposing it was as a feature and,
you know had an impact on the landscape,
no doubt about that.
So I think again,
probably a useful thing that it was taken away.
And of course it's been replaced by our new visitor centre
which it was set into the landscape a lot better.
You can see here, it's pitching down
with the hills in the background
on the South side of the River Nairn
to try and blend in and sit back behind the government,
to the south of the government deployments.
And it has some wonderful architectural features.
I really like the wall with the sticking out stones
that relate to the number of casualties on the day
at the battle, the 1,200 Jacobites at least
and the government casualties too.
And you can compare and contrast
the two groupings of stones.
Are very, very subtle and I think often,
maybe people don't notice it,
but when you do get told about it, you never forget it.
I think it's fantastic.
Of course, the archeology has had,
we've done lots of work there.
I'm not going to talk about lots of that
because there are people better placed to do that.
Over the years, two men in a trench,
various little bits of watching briefs,
but also work under the taken in advance
of the construction of the new visitor centre
and for interpretation purposes.
Lots of metal detecting, detailed metal detecting
to find hundreds of musket balls of different calibers
relating to different sides.
And one or two, I know Tony,
I often suggest this is one of his favorite artifacts ever.
This pewter cross found close to
where the Atholl Brigade were stationed
against the top end of the Leanach enclosure.
So lots of very good tangible remains,
and often as you would say,
visceral evidence of battlefields and engagements.
So the cross there again,
and some of the musket balls, the bayonets.
And a lot of this material,
and I have to thank Natasha Ferguson here
who did the cataloging of all
and produced our catalogs of all the material
from the visitor centre research work,
which includes all these flattened and cut musket balls
that expand and cause horrendous wounds
once it left the muzzle of the gun.
So musket balls, pistol balls.
There's some of the split ones, bits of grapeshot,
bits of canister, a canister case, pistol shot
and a piece of a Coehorn mortar shell
as Christopher was mentioning.
And again, some more of these very evocative items.
The cross in the top left and the trigger guard
of a Brown Bess musket that had been hit,
impacted by a musket ball, in the bottom right.
So lots of work,
but when you see it, start mapping it,
actually, we've only looked at
a tiny proportion of the battlefield.
I quite like this map, but this is the battlefield
as protected by Historic Environment Scotland
by the designation of historic battlefields in 2012,
which was the area obviously around Culloden House,
and also the wider battlefield.
The Trust owns this patch in the middle
of which is what I was showing you around the cairn here.
But of course it extends much wider,
and of course, battlefields are difficult
to put lines around because in fact,
there is the advance, and there is the retreat,
and the rout and the chase back to Inverness
and the withdrawal of some of the troops,
as Christopher described, over pieces of this ground.
And that is illustrated in some of these
very simplistic diagrams in the battlefield inventory,
which is fine.
That's where you've got to represent these things.
I quite like this slide that I put together.
You would think this is a military movement
of some sort of troop type, but in fact, what it is,
is the retreat of the visitor centre.
As the National Trust of Scotland land
expands in the centre, it goes from being,
the cairn is still a focus, but in fact, you know,
people used to visit that as the primary focus
and then of course it moved to Achnacarry Cottage
and the the Old Leanach,
and then the old visitor centre that was from 1970 to 2007,
and then to the current visitor centre there.
So, as we understand more and more
what we do is we reinterpret and we obviously
have less and less of an impact on the battlefield
as far as we can.
What I want to do now is just turn quickly
to the LiDAR survey, that work that we've been doing,
and that is looking at, it's a mapping exercise.
And what we've done is we've taken the,
and it was done a few years ago now
and it was funded by money raised from the
work of the visitor centre itself
and commissioned by the property manager at the time,
Andrew McKenzie, and it's a fantastic resource
for us to do further research at Culloden.
And it's a mapping exercise.
Basically, you fly a plane and you fire a laser out of it,
and it bounces back and it gives you
16 three dimensional points per meter in this case.
So you can build up a sort of micro topography of the site.
And what it can also do
is it can strip away landscape features,
so you can take away tree cover and buildings
so you can see more of the topography.
And as Christopher has already shown,
topography is key to understanding battles.
What people could see, where they were positioned,
what sort of hollows in the ground were,
what slowed people down, where was footing good,
where it was footing bad?
We initially used it to focus
particularly on the clan cemetery site here.
As you can see, this is the old road filled in now,
as it ran through the centre of the clan grave area,
a bank around here, the commemorative cairn
and each of the individual clan graves
as I showed on the map at the start,
the Ordnance Survey map.
In fact, so detailed that you can actually see
the individual stones showing
as features on the LiDAR data there.
It's lit with light, just like the old maps,
it's lit with light standardly here from the Northwest.
And what we can then do is we can start
to play about with it and so not just using
the three-dimensional side of the LiDAR,
we can overlay it on to historic maps
and use different mapping exercises
that we've undertaken to record things,
like archeological features,
previous work on the site, that sort of thing.
So, here we have the Ordnance Survey map, again,
of the turn of the last century, about 1900s,
with the clan graves area in the centre
of the old road running through,
a plantation of woodland or there the open field,
the field of the English.
And what we've done is we've overlaid that directly.
And as I merge it into the background
what you can start to see is how the land form
starts to appear using the three dimensional LiDAR data.
So this is the old road running through,
this is the clan graves in the centre here.
That's the road that was put through in the '80s
as it curves around the back.
That's the car park for the old visitor centre.
The visitor centre's in here, Old Leanach's about here,
and that's the, what do you call it,
bund that leads up to the roof of the current visitor centre
which is here, and the car park.
But also what you can see in the background
is the geology and that very much links
into what Christopher was saying about the boggy hollows,
particularly in this area over here.
These are streamlets or boggy areas,
and this coming down this side emptying down off the ridge
down into the Nairn, River Nairn valley
to the South East and heading down to the coast
on the Northwest side of the ridge.
So it's very useful for getting an idea of topography
but you can then start to look at it from a current,
this is digital photography taken
at the same team as the LiDAR.
It can be used to plot current land use.
So we can see quite clearly see the current
conifer plantations to the Northwest,
to the Southwest the area of the central part
of the battlefield and the visitor centre.
And the areas of arable and pastoral fields around it.
And what we are able to do is then take that,
produce contour maps so we can use the 3D data
to produce contours through that data,
allowing us to understand the contour and the gradients
in order to understand how what troops would be,
where they would be positioned and what they would see.
And what we've done here is we've taken
Christopher's previous map,
not the one he's just shown but an earlier version of it,
and overlain that on to the topography
as outlined by the LiDAR data.
Culwhiniac enclosure down here
and if I zoom through where we think
the corner of the Culloden Parks,
although it was demolished,
we think is somewhere in this area here,
the King's Stables cottages in this area,
just this area here, yes,
And the two blue lines dots are pretty much
where all those maps show the initial
lining up of the Jacobite line is on in the landscape,
and that's Old Leanach as I mentioned
right at the start of the talk.
So what we've got here,
and this is something we'll be working on more and more
for the future and it's quite nice
because it fits in beautifully
with Christopher's last slide,
it's looking at the viewpoint of the French gun.
That one single lone cannon that held off
some of the government horse from pursuing the McDonald's
on the left flank for quite enough time
to let them to get clear of the field.
And what's shown here is the troop positions,
but also the orange here is what could be seen
from that single position at a height of about
one meter 50 or two meters high.
So, for what your standard person would see.
So those, there are big gaps,
you see there are hollows that things
probably wouldn't be seen into,
although it depends on how tall you are
and whether you're carrying a flag,
whether you're standing,
whether you're on a horse or not.
All these things need to be taken into consideration,
and that is our next set of processes,
to work with Christopher,
to start to look at where we want to try and get
different viewpoints from.
So that's from the French gun position looking,
well, looking all around it.
And the other thing we all have to take into consideration
is the height of some of the park walls
because they would obviously obscure things.
But what this neatly shows is the North,
Northeast-Southwest line of the Ridge of Culloden
and how the land falls away on either side.
And that you could see, you know,
from the Jacobite left flank there was no way
they could see what was happening on the right flank.
And then, this is the same, doing the same thing,
a viewshed analysis from the centre of the second line
of the government troops here.
What could be seen from that position there
which is probably not far off where Cumberland was
at portions of the battle.
And here again, you see the same viewpoints.
Some of the hollows have been picked out.
More work needs to be done,
but it starting to show exactly what we can
start to play a bit with once we get this in.
And this is all done.
And I have to thank Graeme Cavers of AOC Archeology
for putting this all together as a GIS package
so we can run through things.
So not just how can we put the troop types on
but we can also play about with the evidence,
archeological evidence.
This is Tony Pollard and Iain Banks
metal detecting survey work plotted on to the LiDAR stuff.
And here with the GIS, you can start to play around
and look across the material and interrogate it,
looking at different types of objects,
where they were found, but also you get an idea
of just how small the area is we've looked at.
And then you can click on individual items.
And here we have the troop position,
the position of the cross,
as it was found at the far South West
of the metal detecting survey area.
And just to finish,
this is the sort of thing that also we can do,
and thanks the AOC for this as well.
We can use the LiDAR data to start 3D modeling
and changing the light direction.
And we can take the,
we can turn the digital photography on
which can be helpful sometimes.
But we can turn that off too
and start to play about with it
to look at the different viewpoints.
And again, you'll see the topographic features
coming through on that.
I mean, the power of this material is great.
And we've now got this 3D model
for an area of about four kilometers square
within the big loop of the Culloden, the railway line,
the Highland railway line, the Inverness railway line,
that whole end of the ridge is modeled now
and we can start to use it to tell more of a story
about the Battle of Culloden.
And I'll just stop there.
I just wanted to say thanks very much again
to all the people who have input to this,
and in particular to Christopher himself
who has helped fund some of the work.
- Fantastic. Thank you, Derek.
I think it's really exciting this position we're in now.
There's so much we can learn
from this information and from this data.
And I think the scope is endless, but,
as I said earlier, I'm no expert,
and we are lucky enough today also to have with us
Professor Murray Pittock from Glasgow University.
Murray is a Bradley Professor
and Pro Vice-Principal at University of Glasgow.
He's also a board member of the National Trust for Scotland
and he his our Scottish history advisor.
He also advises at the National Museum,
National Galleries and Museums Galleries, Scotland
a variety of overseas institutions and agencies.
He has an incredibly long list of appointments
from all over the world by the looks of it
which I'm not gonna go into today
because we have a limited amount of time,
though, just Murray I will though, say that he's another,
along with Christopher,
one of the global authorities on Culloden,
currently researching global history of Scotland for Yale
and the British Army in Scotland, 1746 to '60.
Professor Pittock,
I'd like to ask you if we may to just reflect
on what Christopher and Derek have presented,
and what this might mean for us here at Culloden?
- Delighted, Raoul, to go through some of the most
interesting and original presentations on Culloden
that it's been my pleasure to hear, here or anywhere else.
And I think this is a real,
really brilliant to see the extent to which the Trust
has foregrounded original research today.
It's wonderful to see.
So to take, first of all,
Christopher's excellent forensic address
and set some context for that.
One of the things that Michael Russell did
as our culture cabinet secretary of the Scottish government
was to authorize the Scottish Battlefields Register
which reported and was set up in 2011.
And which should have provided much better evidence
than previously existed and did provide
for the extent of Culloden Battlefield.
But because that didn't involve any kind
of legislative protection,
and it only meant though the planning authorities
should take notice of the existence
of the Battlefields Register,
and to what extent that taking notice had any effect
was really up to the planning authority concerned,
it was proven to be a broken reed
when the critical issue of planning development at Culloden,
which Professor Duffy highlighted,
Viewhill, the Viewhill development,
went through the entire planning system in 2017.
And to just relate that development at Viewhill
to the couple of the maps that Professor Duffy showed.
I think the Yorke map looks as if it
was in the original disposition of the troops,
but if you notice on the Yorke map or you remember,
the Jacobite left overlaps the British Army right.
And in doing so it presented a threat
which Cumberland countered by bringing up
Cobham's Dragoons across the back of the third line
with some other units to reinforce Kingston's Light Horse
and his command post on the right.
The ground over which they moved
and for over which they subsequently charged
in attempt to create a double envelopment
of the Jacobite Army, which was,
as we've so eloquently heard,
hindered by du Saussay's four pounder gun
at the edge of Culloden Park enclosures.
That ground is the ground on which Viewhill stands.
That ground covers movements of British cavalry.
So that was a significant,
that's a significant intrusion
onto the historic space of the battlefield.
And I think that what Professor Duffy's paper
brings home to us is the extent to which
the interpretation of the battlefield
as a National Trust for Scotland site
has been absolutely central
to the way the NTS has protected and developed it
over the last 85 years.
But it's been too easy for people to think that the site
is the site that the National Trust of Scotland owns,
which actually has itself changed significantly
with the purchase of additional land since the 1930s.
As you've seen today,
that site is about one third of the total battle site.
And it's very, very important to realise
that in conserving Culloden is not about
conserving the National Trust of Scotland Culloden,
it's helping the National Trust of Scotland
to conserve all of Culloden
and to resist the planning applications
which continue to be made,
and which have recently been made
on the lines of Jacobite retreat
and the Jacobites by the Jacobite second line.
So if you look at some of the salient things
in Professor Duffy's important contribution,
one of the things that you would notice,
not only is that that new King's Stables road
travels really from the Jacobite first to second line
but I think those maps and their interpretation
bring home to us the fact that the Jacobite first line
is so much larger than the second line and was so much,
it was absolutely critical that it was successful
in the first phase of the action
because the Jacobites had no effective reserves.
And although the Elcho and Fitzjames' cavalry screen
because of the contours of the land,
which brings up a very useful point that
Derek Alexander raised about what you can see
from where you're standing
because the line shifts contour towards the Nairn
by round about 15 meters,
actually helped to screen the Jacobite second line
to conceal its inadequacy
from the British cavalry advance on that wing.
And those things, on both wings,
the gun at Culloden Parks prevented
the envelopment on the British right,
and the cavalry screen prevented the impetus
of the envelopment on the British left.
Those things helped to stop the envelopment,
which would have killed far more Jacobites
than actually died, though goodness knows those were enough.
So I think that give,
that you've had visualize there a really good,
a really good overview of the battle
comparing the Jacobite Army,
so strong on its front frontline, with the British Army,
so strong over three lines of assembly.
And again, the very important point
about the composition of the Jacobite Army.
Although we have put up in the Victorian period
clan graves and memorials for clans,
the Jacobite Army was in regimental format.
And many of those were enrolled in the different regiments
were not necessarily from the localities
in which the feudal magnates who had raised them came from.
Moreover, even when they were,
they were often conventionally organised.
For example, MacDonnell of Glengarry's
as well as two other Jacobite regiments
had grenadier companies.
So they were very, in that sense,
a conventional organisation.
But if you want to think of the size
that we really need to look at at the battlefield
and think of the battlefield in terms of,
it also helps to visualise just how many men,
roughly 12 to 14,000, were on the battlefield
on that fateful day in 1746.
Because again, it's quite clear that if you think about
how they would be spaced out,
it's quite impossible for them actually,
all to have stood on the National Trust for Scotland site.
So I think those points are really brilliantly
and strongly visually brought home
by Professor Duffy's presentation of the development
and the speed of development of the battle.
And I think we need to continue to ensure
that the Scottish government especially after the
upcoming election in Scotland on the 6th of May,
and others, are really apprised of the scale of the battle
and the integration of all of the battlefield as a whole
to the way in which we need to preserve,
protect and conserve it.
To reflect somewhat on also on Derek Alexander's paper,
I think it was what, there were two really,
really excellent things there.
First of all, the LiDAR, which we need to dwell on I think,
the LiDAR data, the looking,
the development of the contours of the battle.
The way that the LiDAR data seriously reinforces
the integration and synthesis of the mapping data.
I don't think we need to be any longer in any doubt
about the extent over which the battle ranged
because we have confirmation from so many different sources.
But one of the other things that was really important
in what Derek Alexander talked about
was the memorialisation of the battle.
The way we remember the battle, which has changed so much.
Its very nice to see Achnacarry,
which with its tea room, which didn't disappear till 1972,
and obviously it's very much closer
to the scene of the action than any
current planned development, but,
what we're looking at there is the
National Trust of Scotland conservation
which helped to develop a situation
where the battlefield had all its extraneous buildings
removed, and indeed of course,
helped to relocate the road in 1981.
But that removal was part of a cycle of conservation,
which is now under pressure and being attacked from without.
And I think that that's one of the important
cycles of memory we need to reverse.
We've moved to a situation where we conserve
more and more and more and more of Culloden
and now we're being, it's being put under threat
by those who would like to conserve it
less and less and less.
Why they would like to do that,
I think I'll just reflect on at the end.
I think one of the interesting things about Culloden
is that it wasn't really particularly remembered
until the centenary of 1846.
And actually, when the initial stone was laid for the cairn
that became the Forbes Memorial in 1881,
it was a weeping woman and child
which was the intention to be put up.
Very much because that was the shape of the way
Irish Famine monuments were beginning to go.
And the date, 19 September, 1849,
when that initial stone was laid in the cairn
was actually towards the end of the
West Highland potato famine
which suffered from exactly the climatic problems
which affected much more seriously though,
seriously enough in the West Highlands,
Ireland in that period,
so that in a way the original memorial
which didn't get enough money to be developed
as a weeping woman and child
and ended up being a cairn 30 years later,
is also part of the suffering
of the West Highlands in the late 1840s.
Those of you who have been,
who watched some of the very interesting photographs
that Derek Alexander put up will also have seen
not only on the, as will be familiar to many of us,
on the cairn, the Highlanders who fought for Scotland
and Prince Charlie commemorated,
but also at King's Stables, the King's Stables plaque,
that this is a station of the English cavalry.
And of course the term, field of the English.
And this brings me to the vexed, you know,
the vexed nomenclature which has surrounded Culloden.
And one of the fascinating things about it
is that it has been largely remembered
as for most of its history when it began to be remembered,
as fundamentally an Anglo-Scottish conflict.
And that's still in some of the memorials
and the names of the battle.
And it became, it started to be predominantly remembered
as a civil war roughly from the 1960s and '70s.
It used to fit into, constitutionally speaking,
a narrative about Scotland and Britain,
which was irreversible.
And when it appeared that there was a challenge,
a constitutional challenge in the current data,
that narrative, it actually,
it became remembered in a rather different way.
So, that's an interesting feature in itself
the way in which the battle is remembered
and how it's remembered remains very, very important.
And to take you back to a much earlier stage,
when the current Leanach Cottage was reconstructed
out of the stones of the Leanach enclosure in 1868,
that was the same year that Queen Victoria
requested Cumberland's statue be taken down
in Cavendish Square.
So different parts, very different parts of this

Afternoon event: part 2


KATEY BOAL: Hello everyone, and welcome back.
I found this morning really interesting
and quite challenging as well.
It's always interesting to find out what historians
and archeologists think about the battlefield.
And we're gonna take a slightly different turn this morning
or this afternoon, sorry.
We're gonna talk about the nebulous concept
of sense of place, incredibly important,
particularly when we're thinking about the battlefield,
but also there are many, many other sites within Scotland
where sense of place plays a real part in their story.
And I'm very excited to have with us a couple
of different folks here today who have all engaged
with the concept of sense of place.
First of all, I'd like to introduce you to Mark Gibson.
Mark Gibson has been involved.
Well, he's the rescuer and owner,
the badge Craigengillan Estate in Ayrshire.
Despite being a recognised beauty,
he had to fight to protect it and let it lead to a rebirth,
the former East Ayrshire Coalfield, which he neighbours.
Mark is a zoology graduate and a chartered surveyor,
and he was also a founding trustee of Dumfries House
and the Scottish Dark Sky Observatory.
And Mark is going to spend 15 minutes or so chatting to us
about fighting for our landscapes.
Then we're gonna move on to Dr. Karen Buchanan
who will introduce in her own time from Gairloch,
and Raoul Curtis-Machin, who you have met already.
So with that in mind, Mark, I'll hand over to you.
Is Mark there?
Yes, Mark.
Can you hear me all right?
I think maybe...
- [Mark] Can you hear me?
- Yes, now I can.
Go ahead.
- Sure.
You can hear?
So I'll illustrate what I have to say
through our experience at Craigengillan Estate.
You can see a picture of it on the screen.
It's a magical place.
It's set within the Southern uplands of Scotland,
about 14 miles from the sea and right in the middle
of what was the East Ayrshire Coalfield.
It actually neighbours the village of Dalmellington,
which was a coal mining community up until the 1970s.
And you couldn't really find a much greater contrast
than the untouched sleeping beauty
which was Craigengillan when I came and the village
which had really had its heart torn by mass unemployment
and all the social evils that go with that
which followed the closure of the deep mines in the 1970s.
The landscape is recognised as a designed landscape
by Historic Scotland as was,
and rated amongst the top four in the whole of Scotland.
They assess designed landscapes
against seven different criteria,
and they rated it outstanding in all seven categories.
The landscape is very much a combination
of that created by man.
So the planting, the category listed buildings
which you can see in the centre of the picture,
and the work of the work of God really
in the formation of the hills and the natural environment.
When I came to Craigengillan, 21 years ago,
it was in a pretty sad state.
It had been neglected and really nothing had been done
for almost exactly a hundred years.
It was also a bit scary
because of the wild reputation of Dalmellington.
And so at the time, it felt a brave move,
but I'm very glad that I made it.
We embarked on the restoration of the landscape
and the buildings and the woodlands
and all the other elements of the landscape,
and I was hugely emboldened and encouraged
by the very warm support from the community.
All ages were very much involved with the primary schools,
the two primary schools, the Doon Academy,
the secondary schools, and with all age groups really
throughout the community and everybody incredibly
and unexpectedly to me
because they've been very much kept charged
at the place before, terrific warm support.
As time went by, we developed a plan for the future,
and that was very much just through informal discussion,
not a formal consultation.
And we developed together a plan
of how Craigengillan might be able to contribute
to a new future for the Doon Valley
and way out of the hard times.
And that future we saw based on outdoor activities
and nature and cultural tourism.
And the future was that the whole foundation of that future
was the landscape and history of Craigengillan.
And we had support very much, not just from the community,
but from our local authorities, Ayrshire Council.
It's a marvelous landscape,
and it had huge potential to create that new future,
in a similar way relate to Dumfries House
and what it could do for Cumnock
and the surrounding areas.
And the work progressed.
It was a terrific adventure,
but along came the threat in the form at that time
of proposals to build gigantic turbines, wind turbines,
which would have totally dominated that beautiful landscape
and threatened the future that we planned.
We were up against big forces, but we knew we had to try.
And in order to defend that landscape,
the first thing to do was to research what had made it.
As I said, the combination of man, nature, and God,
to understand it physically as well, what had made it,
its relation to man, its sense of place.
The more you get to know it and the more you find out
about what made it, the stronger you love it.
And you come to love it with a passion,
and that love and that passion
is what gives you energy and determination
and you really need both of those to stand a chance at all.
You then need to identify possible stakeholders,
and those will include the local authority,
both the planners and the local counsellors.
Obviously the local community council,
Historic Scotland or HES now, Mountaineering Council,
John Muir Trust, indirect stakeholders.
So not directly connected with the landscape,
but dependent on it, like the Scottish Wildlife Trust,
and with all of those stakeholders to make them aware
of the threat and why it's a threat
and try to galvanise the interaction.
The stakes are very much up against you.
You have to fight mainly in planning terms
and certainly any objection letters have to be
for planning reasons,
and most people don't have experience of planning law.
So the first thing we did was to arrange a public meeting,
find out what people thought.
If they didn't like the plans or frightened by them,
it was to put those fears into planning terms,
create a letter based on all of that
which people could sign.
We formed a small group.
It's crucial to have a small group,
otherwise it becomes unwieldy,
to have as few meetings as possible
and basically action, not meetings.
That was pretty much the case with Dumfries House.
I think we had a total amount
of about 25 minutes of meetings.
But that way, the whole community was able
to participate in the planning process.
It meant going out often on dark cold, winter evenings,
around every house in every village
which might be effected by the proposals.
And in total, we achieved, I think the highest number
of objections that Ayrshire's council ever received
for developments over 20,000.
A common reaction on the doorstep was, well,
this is all very well,
but if the government wants to do something,
it will do it regardless.
And at that time, I thought, no, that's not the case.
They will listen to people.
In amongst all the hard drive, there were moments of humour.
We had quite a few young people joined in helping,
and I remember, I think the first night,
it was a gloomy cold night,
and one young lad of about 14 came out to the house
where he'd been asking if people would like to sign
and came out face like thunder.
And I said, what's the matter?
And he said, "They wouldn't sign."
And I said, that's fine.
Everybody is entitled to their own opinion,
to which his reply was only if it's the right one,
which is good attitude.
If you can find people from outside who are well-known
that lend their names, that's always a help as well
because a sports legend
or a film star is going to have a bigger political influence
than necessarily somebody from the local community.
At the very first application, Historic Scotland said
that the proposal would have a very damaging impact
on the landscape, and it's category listed buildings,
and that that negative impact could not be overstated.
They went on to say that no mitigation was possible.
However, following a change of government,
the applicant resubmitted
with a few relatively minor changes.
Historic Scotland said they were now pleased
to withdraw their objection - extraordinary -
and it turned out that a very senior minister
had verbally advised Historic Scotland
to make this change chilling.
South Ayrshire Council
within its boundaries the application
stood, under pressure changed their objection
to no objection.
East Ayrshire Council, however, which was
our local authority,
which IS, sorry, our our local authority
is within a hundred yards or so of the proposed development,
and stood to suffer much more than South Ayrshire Council.
They strongly objected.
However, Scottish ministers decided
to approve the application
without going to a public inquiry.
East Ayrshire Council sought a judicial review,
but again, under pressure and bearing in mind slim budgets
and the risk to scarce resources,
at the very last moment decided that they couldn't proceed
with the judicial review, which they had embarked upon.
I therefore agreed with East Ayrshire Council
to take over their position at the judicial review.
Again, a scary task, but it had to be done.
To do this, I had to employ a solicitor,
and the solicitors junior.
The solicitor in turn had to instruct a senior QC
and a junior QC, an enormous expense.
And the legal process is quite disillusioning.
I hadn't been through it before.
You begin with preparing a detailed statement of case
with the solicitor and with the QC.
It's an extraordinary system
where you can't speak direct to the QC.
You have to deal direct
with either the senior or the junior solicitor
who then jolts to the QC,
not ideal for communication.
The judge was then appointed,
and this is commonplace was appointed 10 minutes
before the case began.
So had no opportunity to read any of the statements of case.
One aspect of that case was that the designed landscape
had been designated and initially just half of Craigengillan
and then as its importance was recognised,
Historic Scotland designated the balance,
further 1,500 acres.
The judge misunderstood this,
and although Historic Scotland had said
that one of the great values of the place
was that the landscape was unfragmented
and had never been sold off in part.
The judge misunderstood this and said,
"Oh, but that's incorrect
because the applicant purchased further 1,500 acres."
We haven't done any kind of,
it was just the designation had been increased in extent.
Because you're not allowed to say anything in court,
we couldn't challenge this.
So the judge made the wrong decision,
turned down that application for protected costs,
and there was nothing we could do.
So we had to appeal that decision again several times,
tens of thousands of pounds at stake,
and we won that appeal.
And so we had achieved the position of protected costs.
However, it had been a gruelling experience.
We'd already put at risk nearly a hundred thousand pounds.
There would have been another five steps to go through
in the courts, even if we had one at every stage,
and there's no means of telling in law
whether you're going to or not.
The final stage would have been a public inquiry
even if the reporter and I agree completely
with Professor Duffy about reporters,
even if he had found in our favour,
his findings are not legally binding
and Scottish ministers could have gone against them.
And we decided therefore
that rather than imperil the whole place, we would withdraw
if the outcome would reimburse some of our costs
which was eventually agreed to.
So really a very bleak experience,
and the lessons are
First of all that bodies like Historic Environment Scotland
as they now are, the Forest Commission or Scottish Forestry
as they are now, NatureScot,
they must be given proper full independence,
and be allowed to make assessments
on applications without fear.
Politicians must then openly weigh the advice they receive
from those organisations against any other considerations
for maybe, and not hide them,
hide behind those organisations as they did in our case.
Really important for everybody to get involved
in the development of the national planning framework,
which I see is something which NTS's advocating here.
I completely agree with that.
To stand a chance,
you must have 100% passion and determination
and a total belief in what's right.
With the experience that we've had, you might think, well,
if we'd known all of that in advance,
there was no point in trying.
But you have to try.
You have to know that you have tried.
Designations and lines on maps and patches of land
is all very well and good in themselves,
but development outside those boundaries
can have an effect as well.
So there's a limit to that.
The possibility of UNESCO designation
in the case of Culloden is a good one.
But again, it doesn't guarantee anything
as has been seen
at New Lanark.
I think that's really all I have to say.
I think we tried.
We tried very hard.
We've learned.
We have stopped some of the more serious proposals
that were being made,
and I think we've deterred others from trying.
And I wish anybody involved the very best of luck.
It's a hard battle, but it's one worth fighting.
And last thing, think hard before voting on the 9th of May.
Thank you very much, indeed.
Sorry if I've gone on too long.
Thank you.
- Thank you, Mark.
That was really interesting.
And quite heartrending in terms of the challenges
that clearly you had to face and pushed through.
I think what I find particularly interesting,
and this is where our next speaker is going to touch on,
Dr. Karen Buchanan.
Karen has recently been involved
in the refurbishment of Gairloch Museum,
and she has with support with the people of Gairloch,
really created a place
that represents the community of Gairloch,
something that is as by and for Gairloch, and resonates
with sense of place for the whole of the community.
And she has been working at Gairloch since 2013,
and her new heritage attraction,
well, not her heritage attraction,
the community's new heritage attraction
has regenerated a key site in Gairloch,
and was also one of the art from museum of the year in 2020.
So I'm going to let her sort of touch
on the importance of community,
community engagement, and the representation of community.
- Thank you, Katey.
Thanks very much for those kind words
about the museum as well.
As Katey said, in Gairloch Museum,
we realised a major cultural heritage project
for the area in 2019.
So the completely development of the museum,
and the background will be familiar to many.
So I'll just in a nutshell touch on it.
Our previous home was an increasingly decrepit farm setting
where the lease was running out,
and with core funding slashed and very limited opportunities
for revenue generation, we needed a new home,
a new business model
in order to save the museum and survive, which we managed.
The new Gairloch Museum consists of five galleries
over two floors.
It tells a story of Gairloch and the surrounding area
from its earliest geology through the modern day.
And within it, we have doubled our gallery space.
We have commercial space for retail and a cafe with,
I think, one of the finest views in the area
over Loch Gairloch to the Isle of Skye.
So this involves several years of hard work,
not least of which was raising the 2.4 million pounds
that we needed before the project could go ahead.
And I've been asked to talk
about how we harnessed community engagement
and sense of place to realise that project
in just 15 minutes.
So the title on the slide is the title that we use
for the project, Our Land, Our People, Our Story,
and we had to choose a title for our funders.
It's quite a hard thing to do,
distilling this massive project dine into just a few words.
And we settled on Our Land, Our People, Our Story.
It's simple.
There are no clever pumps in there,
but I think it's the essence
of what our project was about,
and it also highlights three salient features
of our sense of place as well.
So it emphasises that human connection attachment to place,
the idea of players as a focus of meaning
that not only enabled us to achieve our project,
but also I think comes across very strongly
in our displays and events and activities.
And I just want to say a bit about the ways
in which I think sense of place has been so evident
in that Gairloch Museum project.
We are a geographically-defined museum.
So we collect within the boundary of the old Gairloch parish
and you might use those new fashionable marketing term
of hyper-local to describe us.
So although we constantly aspire
to expand our audiences locally and globally,
we are optimised for a geographically-defined area
in terms of the heritage that we're focused on.
So you could argue
that we do have a very clearly defined sense of place
as far as our collections and our heritage is concerned.
And perhaps is part of the appeal
to those who share that sense of place.
And we're first and foremost, a community museum.
So the museum has always been strongly supported
by the community.
It was funded by volunteers.
It's still managed by a board of volunteers,
and just about everything we do, only succeeds
because of the extensive volunteer effort that goes into it.
And this was something that was always
at the forefront of our thinking throughout the project.
So when I talk about the community
as well as those directly involved
in the museum as volunteers,
we have people who live and work
in Gairloch and the surrounding area,
but also those who visit for whom cultural tourism
is an important contributor to sense of place,
and of course our diaspora
who may never have managed to visit,
but whose culture and identity and notion of belonging
are very much tied into our sense of place.
And this relates back to what Professor Murray Pittock
was saying this morning about harnessing support
from an international audiences
from the point of view of Culloden as well.
So the project was about saving our heritage for the future
and heritage of course support sense of place
by creating a continuity over time,
protecting the objects in the museum,
the stories also our vernacular language,
our Gairloch cultural heritage that defines our place.
So there was a strong depth of feeling I would say
within the community that museum
could not be allayed to close.
And a dogged determination
that we could ensure its survival.
And we were fortunate that supporters got caught up
in this campaign to see if the museum,
and of course, what better way
to foster both community engagement and sense of place
than through I can pay in like that.
But it wasn't just good luck that maintained that momentum.
We were in constant communication
and consultation with the community.
Our story was always that this is something
for the community, for the whole community.
It is community-driven, and it requires input
and effort from the wider community to succeed.
So for example, before we started approaching
outside funders, we asked the community to pledge money
towards the cost of the new building.
And we used this investment
both to get the community involved from the start,
but also to show funders the extent
of community support that existed and to give them an idea
that we had the capacity to see this through.
Throughout the course of the project,
we ultimately raised 200,000 of our 2.4 million
just from our own local fundraising efforts.
And that's in an area of less than 2,000 inhabitants.
So the number of people involved in organizing,
but also in attending these fundraising events
just snowballed through the several years of the project.
And we managed to suck in people
who hadn't been involved in the museum before,
people who turned out to pub quizzes for the beer,
and two years later find themselves volunteering
behind the museum desk when we opened.
And I think the constant communication
that we had with the community was very important
in that we wrote every two weeks in the local paper
about what was happening, what the next stage was,
what we did achieved since the last time.
And when there was important news to impart,
we literally dropped letters through every door letter box
in the parish to let people know why they were important
to these developments.
And when we finally raised our fundraising target,
there was enormous excitement within the community.
So in thinking about our displays then,
we also relied on the community
to tell us what themes were important to them,
what aspects of our heritage or our sense of place
should the greatest focus be placed on.
We then went back to them, we showed them our proposals.
We asked for feedback, we had exhibitions both in the museum
and in other villages in the parish and the area
and from which we got strategic feedback
on what we were proposing to do.
So it put a great deal of effort
into assuring people could have their say
in how we were interpreting their heritage.
And there were two senses of place
interestingly at work there because the old museum
and its couthy farm standing was enormously popular,
and there was actually an element of doubt
even among those who loved the museum
about whether we could pull off moving this collection
into a building that was so different
and still keep the feel of the old museum,
still retain that sense of place.
Ultimately, the new building, the bunker,
has generated a lot of interest,
and has actually become a large part of the interest
and the story itself.
So our displays were very much co-curated,
volunteers were involved.
They roped in others to help them.
They recorded interviews.
They made films.
People came out of the woodwork
with donations that were so good.
We had to change our display plan several times.
And on a practical level,
people pulled heather, thatched a croft house for us,
made a model of our bunker that would have cost us a fortune
to commission, our local art teacher
even give kids batik lessons.
They all went off and chose a museum object,
recreated it in batik and these night decorate
what would otherwise have been a very austere
concrete activity room at the back of the building.
They're wonderful.
And we decanted our collection entirely with museum,
sorry, with volunteer effort,
roping in the strongest members of the community
and those were the biggest fans.
So ultimately, a very large and diverse section
of the community contributed
to creating the new Gairloch Museum.
And I just want to say a little bit
about the feedback we've had just in finishing off
about our new museum.
So in a review of Gairloch Museum for the museum's journal,
Katey described the museum as in the community,
about the community, and for the community,
and I would add to that that it's also by the community.
So there's a genuine stake in what we had created
from beginning to end.
And the museum of the year judges described our story
as a tale of people, power, determination, and local pride.
They said that the redisplay of the museum's collection
encapsulated the history, culture, beauty,
and character of Gairloch.
So they got that sense of place too.
And they described the new Gairloch Museum
as having reanimated the village's pride and its heritage,
and produced a sustainable cultural landmark
for generations of visitors to enjoy.
So that is of course a wonderful affirmation
of precisely what we set out to do,
and it really felt
like the whole community had won the award
and not just Gairloch Museum.
Thank you.
- Thanks, Karen.
That was really interesting.
And I think sort of brings together some of the pieces
of the puzzle here.
So we've got this landscape, this incredible landscape,
that Mark was discussing, that was under threat,
that required immense amounts of effort
in order to protect portions of,
and Karen of course, you reflecting on the intense amount
of effort and engagement necessary to work with communities
to build a sense of place within four walls,
and reflecting the wider community of Gairloch.
I'm hoping that Raoul will pull these two strands together.
He's going to give us a talk now about Culloden 300,
and how we have to live with the battlefield
because this is a living landscape, guys.
But Raoul is the Operations Manager
for Culloden Battlefield.
He has a strong heritage and communications experience.
He was a National Trust, in England,
senior strategic advisor, and the landscape historian
with Historic Environment Scotland.
He's a journalist, a publisher, an author,
and he represented the UK government as commissioner general
for the Antalya Expo in 2016.
So to you Raoul.
- Okay.
Thank you, Katey.
Now, if I can just get the first slide up, please.
What I'm gonna do is just switch off my video
so you can focus on that.
So thank you for the opportunity.
I'm gonna be talking about the Culloden 300 Initiative.
This aims to create a vision
for the battlefield and its surrounding cultural landscape,
a vision that we all create and we all sign up to,
government, local communities, Highland Council,
national trusts, Historic Environment Scotland, businesses,
Battlefields Trust, developers, a whole lot of us,
because as we've found out over the course of the day,
unless we all put our shoulders together,
it ain't gonna happen.
The title came out of a comment
that the Highland Council senior planners made to me
when I just started
and I was going round one of those familiarisation meetings
with them and that they just automatically launched
straight into a scaling statement:
"You're always saying no to everything, all the time,
and it's ruining on your credibility."
It caught me completely unawares
and I went away and thought,
well, okay, maybe, maybe there's a point.
But fundamentally, we're a conservation charity.
We're charged with conserving Culloden.
So what'd you expect?
And most of the time we're dead right
because the development just isn't appropriate,
and much of what's been already allowed
has done untold damage
to the fragile treasured landscape of Culloden.
But maybe the Council had a fair point.
Maybe that just saying no to everything
and not offering up an alternative
is not particularly helpful to planners.
So Sarah in our communications team
said that why don't we start actually talking
about what we would like to see
rather than just what we wouldn't?
And then it was Diarmid Hearns
our Head of Policy who suggested
that we pick the next big anniversary
which would be the 300th,
and we come up with what we would like to see,
a vision for the landscape.
That sounds like a long time away, 300,
but this is the 275th,
and 2046 is almost 25 years from now.
So if any of you have kids
you know how quickly that can go.
We were still talking amongst ourselves
about how we would plan this and what steps we'd take
and how we could get the right stakeholder heads
and knock them together.
And assuming that, of course, the site was hugely important
and it was actually Katey who stepped in and said,
"Well, have we actually asked the people
if Culloden matters?"
And we looked at it
and we thought well, we must have done that.
And we just all assumed that this had been done
and there must be screeds of responses.
Actually no.
They weren't.
They'd been a little bit, but not a lot.
And this actually matters a great deal because essentially,
if the people don't care for the asset,
then we've got no mandate
to make a big song and dance about it.
And we can't be using our members' money
to try and protect the site and conserve it.
So we thought we'd better go and find out.
So early 2019,
we launched a three-phase consultation exercise.
One of the first bits was a deceptively
simple online survey, which had almost 3,000 respondents.
Can I change slide please?
This survey, the first part
actually just said: Does Culloden matter?
If so, why?
And please, wax lyrical
about why it does make a big difference to you.
And this was aimed to give us some quantitative data,
some numbers for how important the site was,
and which factors really mattered to people.
And it would also give us the context
for the whole initiative and shape the other discussions
with our other constituent groups.
The second part of the consultation
was to engage our local communities
in a more in depth way to explore the notion
of appropriate and inappropriate development.
And these terms are thrown around,
but it can be quite tricky to define,
particularly in landscape terms.
And we commissioned landscape architects
to create views shared, no sorry, erm
zones of theoretical visibility analyses,
which would show which areas on and around the battlefield
were in prime view from the widest most visible areas.
We also asked the landscape architects
to come up with wireframe illustrations from key points
on the battlefield, looking in the same directions.
And these would illustrate what different scales
of buildings and developments might look like.
This was to prompt people to consider what might
or might not be acceptable
in terms of appropriate development.
In the picture,
you can see the wireframes pinned against the easels,
and we had comment boxes where people could anonymously
write what they thought and how they felt.
And we basically took it on the road then.
We did one,
I think, three sessions in the visitor centre at Culloden,
but we also went out into the community.
We held afternoon and evening events
in the community halls and church halls,
Smithton, Baloch, Croy, Culloden.
And I want to offer a huge thank you
to our volunteers for helping, especially Peter Cowe.
The hours we spent stood in cold drafty halls,
explaining patiently what these views meant,
why it was significant,
and actually the response was worth it.
The time we spent was worth it.
The third phase of the consultation
was to hold targeted in-depth anonymous conversations
with key stakeholders.
So this was when we would go to the planners, counsellors,
folks who wouldn't really be able to publicly declare
what their opinion might be.
But we gave them the space
and the freedom to talk anonymously.
So we could just find out and engage,
not adding any names to it, of course,
but just to get us that, um,
a measure of what the desire was to protect the site,
and at best we could conserve the cultural landscape.
When we first looked at the response,
we were blown away by firstly where the people came from.
If you look towards the bottom, you can see the graph there,
where 67% were from Scotland,
33% from the wider UK and rest of the world.
So we've clearly got a site of national
and international significance.
Next slide, please.
And wow did they respond in a simple, strong way!
Yes, Culloden matters.
Absolutely unequivocal.
And why?
Well, broadly four headings:
history, remembrance, memorialisation,
and opinions on development.
There's more underlying these headings
as there is underlying that the headline stats
that I'm going to talk about today,
and there's really a worth reading the full report
which you can find on the website.
There's a summary on the full version.
I may go into a lot more detail
about the different types of responses
and the numbers of people who gave them.
62% of all those surveyed said
that history of the site was the most important factor.
39% expressed strong opinions on development,
and these ranged from none whatsoever please
is nothing sacred to, well maybe,
okay, but please only small scale
rural agricultural style developments, please.
They've got to fit with this landscape.
The image on the right there
you can see that's from the 2019 anniversary of the battle.
Well, our anniversary event. We always hold the event
on the Saturday closest to the 16th of April.
But I love this picture
because it's just ordinarily without pandemics
and massive health scares.
It's a phenomenal event.
And you have people from all over the world coming.
You get all the clan flags, the clan retinues,
the pipers, clan chiefs come.
It's just a phenomenal day.
Lots of dressing up, lots of conversation,
lots of serious commemoration.
And it's just such a privilege
to see how important such a site is to people.
Please come next year, and the years after that.
We're hoping the crowds will come back.
Next slide, please.
To the nub really,
the development opinions were the critical part,
and this is where sense of police comes to the fore
much talk about this term 'sense of place'.
At Culloden, we consider it to be really
where the historical events, cultural significance,
and the physical landscape interact and resonate with us
in a deep and meaningful way.
A million dollar question here
is how we can all work together better
to conserve the sense of place.
Nobody denied its existence,
or suggested that it didn't matter.
In fact, just the opposite.
This is exactly what excites people about the battlefield.
Personally, I've worked on hundreds of historic sites
across Scotland and the whole of the UK,
and I've never known such a site
which generates such a strong, emotional
and spiritual response in people.
I see visitors regularly come off the battlefield in tears
once they absorb the facts
and the tragic story of what happened.
Their thoughts and feelings have the chance to range
across the open wide landscape.
Basically, this landscape gives them space to breathe.
Next slide, please.
What else matters?
Well, these illustrations just show
some of the other things.
The fact that we have a rare jewel,
a relatively intact battlefield
just and only just, it is already compromised,
we can't deny that.
Viewhill's had a massive impact
on that already,
other housing developments haven't helped.
But relatively little surrounding development
is exceptionally rare in a site of this age.
Very, very few battlefields of this age survive
in such an intact way.
Are we the ones who are going to let that go?
Is that going to happen on our watch?
What the people told us in terms of the important factors,
nature and landscape was big, war graves,
preserving for the future, importance of telling the story
for future generations, the national significance,
the importance of showing respect,
the peacefulness of the place, the atmosphere,
ancestry and genealogy, and remembering the fallen,
tourism was a major thing.
And in fact, on the environment.
In a busy normal season
we employ more than 75 people.
And the fact there's a memorial.
All these factors came out wide and clear.
Next slide, please.
Biggest by far is the wide open spaces that we've got.
How's it come together?
And why there's such strong responses?
It's because these wide open spaces
let the imagination and the soul breathe.
Having absorbed the blow by blow account
of the Jacobite slaughter,
and we don't pull our punches in the visitor centre,
the immersion theatre film still makes
the hairs on the back of my neck stand up.
Once they've absorbed that
and they've absorbed the confusing mix
of who exactly it was in the British Army
and the Jacobite ranks, how the fact
that there was a mixture of potential civil war
rather than just a religious
or a Scotland versus England tussle.
Having absorbed and reflected on the global power struggle
behind the battle and the battle for global domination
soon after the military occupation of Scotland.
The acceleration of the Clearances,
the attempted eradication of Highland culture,
the Scots diaspora.
It's a huge, huge story.
You need a big canvas and a big landscape
to let your mind wander once you've read about them,
understood all this.
And it is this unique landscape,
which this battle was fought upon.
And it's this unique landscape which holds the memories
and enables us and future generations to understand.
It may be a complex beast to get hold of
and almost a mystical phrase,
but sense of place when you boil it down,
how do we protect and preserve it,
it's actually quite a simple prospect.
We just have to keep this relatively unspoiled
and intact cultural landscape just as it is.
We carry on our job of curating it to conserve it
as it looked back in 1746.
No more intrusive, inappropriate developments
to break up the wide open spaces,
and no more intrusions that ruin the cultural significance
or the historic events.
So why can't we just do it?
Next slide, please.
Because as we've heard,
landscapes are subtle things that are tricky.
Stick a line around them and designate the significance,
and you automatically say that what's not around that line
or what's outwith that line
may not have any significance at all.
And that's blatant nonsense for a landscape
that might rely on bigger views and old features.
It may work for buildings, monuments,
and simple parts of our theology, but no, not landscapes.
The views of our landscapes stretch
way beyond lines on a map.
So what are we going to do?
The Culloden 300, the report Living with the Battlefield,
it's just the start.
We're going to work hard on creating a vision.
We're going to knock the right heads together.
We're going to try to get people to work.
It's heartbreaking really when we looked
at what the various stakeholders were doing them
and the Highland Council wants to protect
Culloden Battlefield.
Its conservation area statement is great.
Historic Environment Scotland really wants
to protect the battlefield.
This battlefield's infantry, research
and designation is great.
The government, everybody, all of us wants to protect it,
but we're not working together properly.
The designed nations aren't working properly.
The attitudes aren't working properly.
We need to be better at it.
We also need to measure sense of place.
Everything else can be measured these days,
and if we can measure it and put a number on it,
it can get into planning speak,
and that gives us stronger arguments.
We need to explore land acquisition.
We've talked about that before.
We need to explore longterm conservation agreements.
You bet.
That's simple.
Well, it'll take time, but we'll get there.
We need to create better guidance.
Let's build the skills that we need
to protect Culloden's cultural landscape,
but also our other fine landscapes.
It isn't just down to the history.
It's also down to landscape impact assessments.
It requires subtle, highly developed skills
to protect landscapes.
And of course, we need to work together better, all of us,
not just NTS and the government
and the council and the other agencies.
We've got to stop hideous developments
like Viewhill getting through.
Designations need strengthening, that's a no brainer.
They've got to be made statutory
and they need to be resourced.
One thing I learned in my time
with what was then Historic Scotland,
and I know Craigengillan intimately.
It was an eye-opener to me,
in that I was functioning with the whole of Scotland,
and really for designations to work,
you need boots on the ground.
You need skilled and experienced boots on the ground
to be able to walk these landscapes,
and not just look at them from a desktop in an office
because sometimes developments do stretch the truth.
As we see it with Viewhill,
they said it was going to be over the ridge
and they put the houses over on different contour lines.
Unless you physically visit sites
and appreciate how the views are impacted,
you can't really give a proper opinion.
And of course, our agencies need teeth to do a bite.
So will we do it all by 2046?
Well, not necessarily, and here's the rub.
It's not up to us.
Yes, we're leading it.
We're happy to lead it.
But it's up to you.
We can't do it without you for a start.
And it's not something that somebody else
is gonna pick up and do for us.
I think maybe that's where these developments
have been falling through the cracks
or it's somebody else that makes that decision.
We've got to make more noise.
We've got to work together more.
We will lead the charge.
We will fight the fight.
We will do all those other glorious cliches,
but we need the funding, we need the resources to do this.
At the NTS we don't receive a penny
in government support for this work,
so we do need your help.
You'll see more details
about how you can donate to the Fighting Fund,
and Conserve Culloden's fund in The States,
and we thank you for all the help you've given us so far,
huge amount of debt as I say to volunteers,
also to Professor Duffy.
Chris, your funding for this,
we wouldn't have got anywhere near as far as we have
without your help and support.
So I would like to say a huge thank you to everybody so far
and please help us continue the fight.
Thank you.
- Thanks, Raoul.
I think what is really interesting
is where we start bringing agencies,
landscapes and communities together,
because if we don't have that community involvement
and that community buy-in,
then we are incredibly challenged.
We're not going to see any kind of significant impact
because it's the communities that are affected
by the development that either want it or don't want it.
And it's their power, the power of the collective voice
that can make impact, be it to other agencies,
to politicians, to key decision makers.
What I'm going to do now is I thought maybe
we could have a bit of a discussion around sense of place.
And I know that Mark,
I think you stuck your hand up at one point, I saw it.
So we'll come back to you
and there's definitely already a question
in the question chat.
If anybody has any questions, please pop it in the chat
or in the Q&A, and I'll try to get to it the best I can.
But I thought maybe we would start
with the concept of sense of place.
And we've been throwing this word about
for the whole of the session,
and I wonder if we could have a moment and talk
about the conditions necessary to create sense of place
because we've got two very different examples
of three very different examples of sense of place.
So really how does sense of place happen?
And I might start with you Mark, if you don't mind.
How do you think sense of place happens?
Mark, I think you're muted.
Can you unmute?
- Sorry.
- [Katey] That's all right.
- I don't know the answer to that,
and it's something which doesn't affect everybody.
You have to be susceptible to that sense of place,
and it's something which is indefinably in the atmosphere.
And I think it's probably something to do with the history
of the place, with the shape of the land,
with what's happened there in history.
It's really how you personally react
to that landscape and that reaction.
I think it will be different with different people,
but although a lot of people will recognise
and it definitely applies to the battlefield at Culloden,
it very definitely has a very strong atmosphere
and very strong sense of place and they can be good,
they can be bad, or they can just be very powerful.
And in that case, I think it's just a very powerful one.
I haven't really answered your question,
but it's difficult to define, but it doesn't.
- That's absolutely fair enough.
Karen, what do you think?
- I actually agree with Mark.
I think that one word he didn't use was emotion.
So I think sense of place comes from emotion,
and sometimes that emotion is based on experience.
Sometimes perhaps it's not direct experience,
but it is, as Mark said, it is a very personal thing for me
and it is different for different individuals.
So it's hard to say that a place has a sense of place
in the sense that that sense of place is different
for different individuals.
But definitely emotional.
- Raoul, would you like to feed in?
- Yeah, sure.
I completely agree.
I also would add in probably spiritual
and psychological feelings too,
and physical responses to sites.
Some people actually feel a physical response.
I think it might be possible to try to measure it.
I'm always an optimist at heart,
but there's quite a lot of things.
If you think about our responses that the marketeers in life
and the PR people are pretty good
at tracking our responses to things,
and they're pretty good at knowing
how to manipulate our desires,
and how we can be closer to making that purchase in the end.
And I think there's maybe tools that we can borrow
from different disciplines that might be able to be used
because we know at Culloden, the sort of building blocks
of historical significance, the cultural significance,
and the physical landscape.
We can measure all of those separately,
but if we can also measure people's
sort of greeted response to them,
we might get somewhere with it.
I think that there'll be no harm in doing more work on it,
but except in the point that every site is different.
- There's some interesting work around museum objects,
which I think can link quite nicely
to the concept of sense of place
in terms of that everybody makes their own meaning
when they engage with an object.
And it is very much about the history of the object,
but also the emotional state of the person
who encounters that object and their own personal histories.
And because you don't actually know what's going on inside
of somebody's head.
And I think your point there about taking quite a cross
disciplinary approach to exploring the concept of sense
of place is something that actually has a lot of legs in it.
And I think that sort of leads onto my next question.
So if we're struggling to define sense of place,
how do we then say, well, that will impact
on sense of place?
How do we know that a wind farm or a housing development
or a poor choice in terms of curatorial decision-making
is going to impact on sense of place?
Karen, would you be able to start with that?
- What you said about the museum objects,
they are, of course, as you say, curated,
they are interpreted.
And I suppose that makes me,
I think about the difference between sense of place
for I'm going to use the word insiders and outsiders,
just because it helps me explain what I mean.
So those who are sort of inside the place
who have shared whether it's language for example,
the Gaelic language, Gaelic cultural heritage
and relation to Gairloch.
But their sense of place is based on something shared,
whereas for outsiders, it is based on something else,
and that's something else I would maybe relate
to this interpretation.
It's the way that we want people to see things
or the only information that they have
on which to base their sense of place.
So in defining sense of place,
I think for example, for those two groups,
that would be something very, very different.
Does that make sense?
- Yeah.
I know it does make sense.
It does make sense because we're talking really
about people who have a shared language when it comes
to a particular location or a particular object
or a particular cultural event.
And that shared language
can effectively create community of interest, doesn't it?
So we have a community of interest around a thing
or a place, and because of either shared experiences
or ideas about experiences or pieces of information
that they have, they're able to react in a specific way.
But if people don't have that specific language
around engaging with that object or that place
or that building, they may have different ways in.
So Mark, sorry, I've gone off there a bit,
but Mark, I'll come back to you in terms of, you know,
what sort of things impact sense of place.
- Again, quite difficult to answer,
but I think you could have,
if you have a place with a strong sense of place,
and it might be a building
and it might be somewhere more natural, like a battlefield,
you can have an extension of what's there,
whether it's an extra part of a building,
and it won't necessarily destroy the sense of place
that existed before.
But if you have something which is very different,
so if you had within a natural landscape
or even a man-made landscape, if you had something,
a new development, which was much bigger in terms of scale,
like a gigantic wind turbine
or a nuclear power station or a multi-story block of flats,
that could destroy that sense of place.
It's something which is out of scale or out of character.
You can have an extension of what's there
which wouldn't necessarily take it away,
but you've got to be very, very careful and very sensitive.
- Raoul... - Well, I'd agree with that.
I'd also add
that when I did the landscape impact assessment training,
that anything and everything will have an impact
on the landscape, the judgment comes in
in deciding if that impact is acceptable or appropriate
or has a negative impact
in which case you wouldn't allow it.
I think with Culloden, we have the battlefield itself.
As we found out this morning, it's bigger than we thought.
But if we knew that, that landscape was actually fought over
and part of the battlefield, well it's a no brainer.
No there shouldn't be any development whatsoever,
because it would kill and shatter not only sense of place,
but it would desecrate the graveyard basically.
Other areas, those bigger views outwith the landscape,
is where it gets trickier.
And I think when Mark mentioned
the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes,
the original one back in 1987
that actually marked on key views from all the landscapes
and made an attempt to say no development
should be considered in key views up to mountains
or key views over to lochs
or key key views that the landscape itself borrowed.
And we have that issue absolutely at Culloden.
When you're on the roof garden looking out down to the Firth
and you're looking out beyond
even beyond where the battle was fought over,
the feelings that you get
really help you understand the story.
So we have to now look
at where are the key areas that we're protecting the most
and somehow prioritise it.
- Yeah.
It becomes really challenging when you sort of,
when you try to put numbers on things
and I completely hear what you're saying
in terms of finding a way of measuring it.
And I guess I would reiterate also grounding it
within our community because it is the community
that is living in our landscape.
They are the people who are going to be going
to the shops in our landscape.
They are the people who are going to be working
in our landscape, either working for the centre
or not working for the centre.
I mean, you know, we are part of our community,
and we have to make sure that whatever we do
in terms of exploring sense of place,
protecting sense of place,
thinking about impact on sense of place,
we grounded in their voice as well.
I guess that also brings me on to, I mean,
I know I've asked some pretty slippery questions, guys.
And I'm gonna ask another slippery question,
which you may or may not be able to answer.
But is it possible to protect sense of place, Mark?
- Well, yes.
By saying ... to everything
Yes, of course you can.
And I think it's really important
that in some cases we do do that.
We don't just survive on bread alone.
Spirits need feeding and nurturing
just as much as our bodies.
So I think we should look after them,
and we should be certainly ready to protect them.
It's really important to the quality of life.
- Karen, what do you think?
- Well, I think that if I turn that around,
you've asked how do we protect sense of place,
maybe we need to think about how do we use sense of place
to protect the place.
You know, in terms of strategically moving forward,
I think that's really important
and that's obviously everything
from encouraging environmental stewardship
to the cultural dimension that Raoul mentioned earlier.
I think we can protect sense of place.
I think it risks being less than objective at times
because if you are protecting a sense of place,
you almost have to select what that sense of place is
that you are protecting.
You know, it's a bit like... - Which is hard.
- Sorry.
- Which is hard because as we said that will reach people
in different ways.
- Yes.
- And it's difficult to which you protect.
Plus you can enhance it
by hanging all developers on sight.
- That's a bit ruthless.
It almost reminds me of appraising an archive collection.
You know, what do you keep and watch you throw out?
And how dare dare you make the decision.
- Absolutely.
- I think that's right.
I think you can build on it as well.
And I think what, I think,
it's what Professor Pittock said this morning,
if people don't know about it and don't appreciate it
or don't understand something,
I think he was talking in that historical value context,
and they may not value it.
So we have to actually explain to our communities too
why the sense of place is important.
Why 300,000 people want to come and visit
and want to come and enjoy a site and respond to it.
Because often when you live in a place,
it can become quite commonplace.
You're driving around the same views, what's the big deal,
you can take things for granted.
And I think there's also responsibility on us
to bring everybody on board
and to help people appreciate
that if we did value the sense of place
and we all did our bit to protect that sense of place,
we all benefit, not just economically,
we all benefit, as Mark suggests,
we benefit from our spirits being nurtured
and our quality of life.
It's one thing COVID has taught us all during the lockdown.
Crikey, just the chance to get outside
into green space and breathe again
is phenomenally valuable and has been taken away.
But sadly, it's only when things get taken away,
that we really appreciate it.
- Yeah.
I think Mary's earlier point
about taking our heritage for granted,
and I think you could extend that
to sort of taking our landscapes
and our cultural heritage for granted.
There's some really amazing stuff in Scotland.
There's amazing stories in small communities
across mountains and big houses,
and there's something about making it accessible,
grounding it in the community,
and making sure that people understand that it is for them
and not in a 'thou shalt have' way,
but in a let's work together way
that maybe there's something in that around sense of place.
And I think this conversation
has been really really interesting
and thank you so much to everyone for contributing.
We do have one question from sort of the wider panel
and this is directed towards you, Raoul,
and it's specifically around young people.
So do you think raising awareness
in schools and universities would help youth
could be a very powerful tool?
So Raoul, if you could maybe touch on that,
and then if either of the other two panelists want to speak
from their own perspective
about the engaging young people
within their either collections or landscapes,
that would be great.
- Yeah, absolutely.
Young people, crikey our education program at Culloden
is huge as you all know, and the value is phenomenal.
If we're not educating the next generations,
then we're sunk, we're just not doing our jobs
and might as well go home,
we certainly shouldn't be paid.
I believe that it's the next generations
who are actually going to protect and keep things going.
And again, it comes back to the sense of value.
If they learn to value these places,
and they learn to value how to look after them,
it'll happen.
If we don't, and if we stop talking about it
and if we stop fighting these threats
and I really appreciate what Mark was saying,
yes, it is flipping exhausting.
I know exactly how tiring it is, but you need to keep going.
If you don't, you don't give the next people the opportunity
to carry the flag and take it to the next stage.
We're only just custodians.
I know it's a term that gets thrown around lot
very likely, but I do believe it,
and I do take it as a very serious responsibility.
It's the next generation though
that's got to take it on, and it's just as important
that we teach them as we do for the existing.
- Mark, what do you think?
- I completely agree with Raoul.
And just a little thing from our own experience,
and with something which somebody else said recently,
which is that you can very easily take your landscape
or your heritage for granted, or indeed your sense of place.
It's something which you absorb
and you just take as part of life.
But one thing which struck me
when I first came to Craigengillan, and doing a lot of work
with young kids from particularly primary schools,
was how many of them didn't appreciate their landscape.
And if you ask them what they wanted to do in life,
they'd say move away from Dalmellington.
And I thought that was really sad,
and one thing which we did very early on,
I got to know the head of the art department,
and we organised that for two days of the year,
his pupils would come to Craigengillan,
and they could paint or draw anything which inspired them,
whether that was a tree or a shepherd or a sheep
or building, whatever, anything which inspired them.
And some of the results were incredibly powerful.
The beauty of painting or drawing
is that instead of just passing a landscape
or a building, passing it by,
you really, really got to concentrate on it
as you're drawing it, and in constraints on it,
you see its beauty.
And that's something which I think then stays with them
for a long time or forever
and makes them want to look after it.
So I completely agree.
Thank you.
- Karen, did you have anything you wanted to add?
- Just that thing about sense of place
and that emotional connection to place
and how it's based on experiences and routinely,
I hear of people visiting the museum with their kids
because they used to come when they were kids,
and they remember one or two things, that's all.
But it stuck in their memory,
and so they come back and every time they come back,
they renew their sense of place, but they also develop it.
So I don't get too hung up on trying to teach, you know,
vast quantities or making children learn lots
about things a time.
I think they learn when they want to learn,
but so long as that emotional connection is there,
they will keep coming back
and they will learn for the rest of their lives.
They'll learn about the place.
- Just as much about depth of engagement really, isn't it?
As it is about sort of quantity of engagement.
I have another question from Duncan Alexander.
I'm going to amend it slightly.
He says "How has landscape become important
to many people during... Our landscape has become important
to many people during lockdown
and can we capitalise on that?"
And I'm gonna add sort of landscaping community
because I feel like community
has become increasingly important
over the course of lockdown.
And Raoul, if we start with you,
and then maybe come to you, Karen, and then Mark.
- Sure.
I think it's been very, very, very important,
and we do have a great opportunity to capitalise on it.
I also want to just touch on something else
I've just spotted, and has been coming up on and off today,
the comments about Outlander.
From what we're saying about sense of place
and educating the next generations,
and the importance of green space,
there are so many different ways of coming to heritage sites
and so many different vehicles
for getting an understanding of their significance.
If that's through works of fiction, if it's through movies,
if it's through anything, it's great
that people are actually getting access,
and that again is part of, I guess, what we're trying to do
is open up that access.
So specifically, in terms of landscapes and lockdowns,
yeah, absolutely.
The first thing we do is open the gates
to the car park again to let people just come and park
and get out to the big open spaces.
I think we can start to offer more from the countryside,
we start to try and hold people's hands a bit more
and engage them rather than just open the gates,
and say, look, knock yourselves out.
There was a bit of a job to do
to actually explain what it's about,
why things are being conserved the way they are.
Why a million trees on this hillside
is gonna have a huge environmental benefit
to us in a hundred years time.
So yes, absolutely,
and I think funny enough, we were just embarking
on a new 10-year corporate strategy in the Trust,
and that's come up as a key potential theme going forward.
How exactly we capitalise on it.
So a good question.
- Karen.
- Yeah, something we're very much doing at the minute.
So we're spending some of the prize money we got
from the Art Fund Museum of the Year to develop an area,
the rear and in front of the museum
to explain our physical landscape to visitors,
and at the back of the museum,
we've developed an archeological trail.
We have round houses on the hill behind,
and we tell that story in the museum,
but we want people to go
and see that landscape themselves as well.
It's a really fascinating multi-period landscape.
At the front of the museum,
it's slightly less ambitious.
It's really nothing more than a picnic area with a nice view
but we're putting in some interpretation panels
about the geology so people can understand the geology
of the area, the landscape they're looking at,
and also about the history of the fishing traditions
in the area.
So they just get that taste of the cultural heritage
while they are appreciating the natural beauty
of the landscape as well.
- Excellent.
And Mark, how would you reflect on that comment
about people during lockdowns?
- I don't know.
I think obviously mankind has evolved over hundreds
of thousands of years in amongst an outdoor landscape.
We may have become a little bit urbanised
in the last hundred years,
but most of us still have a strong part of our psyche
rooted in the outdoors.
And I think to be suddenly denied it,
in the past year has awakened that realisation
that we and the natural world need