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19 Apr 2021

275th anniversary of the Battle of Culloden – films

A view of a large moorland area, with a large stone cairn in the distance. The sky is blue, with white fluffy clouds scudding across.
Working with historians, archaeologists and local partners, the Gaelic Society of Inverness and XpoNorth, we have created a thought-provoking programme to share the latest research and to promote the protection of the battlefield. We've shared some of the films below for those not able to attend our online event.

Culloden 300

Presenting the findings of the Culloden 300 report on the current threats and how we can better protect the battlefield, with Operations Manager Raoul Curtis-Machin.

Culloden 300 - Protecting the Battlefield


KATEY BOAL: The story of Culloden is universal.
It is a story of war, violence, and the communities that emerged from it.
These combined to create a sense of place that you can really sense here on the battlefield and we are actively working to preserve it.

RAOUL CURTIS-MACHIN: The threat to Culloden Battlefield is from inappropriate housing development.
Now, you can see over my shoulder here the Viewhill development.
This is 16 five-bedroom executive modern homes of a style that's completely inappropriate
to this landscape setting.
At one stage in the last two years we felt surrounded by planning applications.
There were six applications on every single side of the battlefield, and if we're not careful we'll end up like Central Park where we're surrounded by inappropriate housing developments.
What these do is actually they disrupt the sense of place.
So by putting something which is so out of keeping in a line of sight, people lose the emotional response that they have to this landscape.
And it makes it incredibly difficult then for them to experience history in a meaningful way that's so important to them.
It's one of the biggest challenges for us in the National Trust for Scotland to resource the battle against these types of developments because every application could have five or six turns and twists to it as they appeal and they tweak a development and we have to try and keep on top of what's being talked about
How important is the piece of land on which the development proposal is on?
How much archaeology do we know about that piece of land?
What was the historical part that it played in the battle?
All this takes time and we have to do the right thing by people.
A big challenge we have is to define inappropriate development.
This is partly what was behind the Culloden 300 initiative.
As a conservation charity we have a fair idea of what we think appropriate development might look like and what inappropriate development looks like.
But we are not the sole arbiters of taste with Culloden.
It's a national asset, it's an international asset.
So really we want everybody else to help decide what type of development and what type of landscape Culloden should look like going into the future.
Our first step was to actually engage our local communities and ask people: why does Culloden matter?
It's okay for us to say it.
We know why it matters, but we need to know from everybody else.
Is it that significant?
If there's only a handful of people that really care then we're wasting our time.
Our first step was to do a big survey of all the visitors that came to the site and also all the local communities.
We then engaged with academics and other key stakeholders.
We held a series of town hall events which were local community halls and community spaces.
That enabled us to get different layers of response from people.
Initially, that sense of well, of course it matters now 75% of our respondents gave us a massive, clear response.
Yes, it matters.
Yes, It's important.
These were UK respondents.
21% of the respondents were international.
They came back and said it's vitally important.
In the community hall events, we were able to tease out more about what appropriate development might look like and what inappropriate development definitely wouldn't be suitable.
There we put wire frames up in front of people and we had a more in-depth discussion about what was acceptable visually and what wasn't.
The responses that we got have given us the mandate to really advocate seriously now and to try to work a lot more collaboratively with our local stakeholders to improve the planning system and improve the processes for dealing with planning applications.
This is the Culloden 300 report here, which you can download from the website.
Our starting point was to survey 3,000 people.
2,900 responded to the online survey and 100 people were surveyed in physical meetings pre-COVID, where we could actually analyse people's responses and talk a bit more in depth about how they felt about Culloden.
Of the responses, 75% were from the wider UK area, 21% were international.
The survey was open for a year for the Culloden 300 initiative.
And we then spent about a month going through all the responses and coding in the responses looking for strong key messages from all the different respondents to the survey.
What came through loud and clear were three main threads.
One was on the sense of place.
This slightly intangible way of describing a place and it's importance, it's a combination of the cultural significance of the historical event of the battle itself and the physical landscape.
In combination, the three together are greater than the sum of their parts and that's what we mean by sense of place.
The other main threads which the respondents told us about were memorialisation and remembrance.
Memorialisation is about actually commemorating the event that took place.
Remembrance as we know every year at Armistice is about actually remembering the fallen and the tragic events that took place here.
The third thread which people told us about loud and clear was in the impact of the events that took place here.
So the historical significance both locally, nationally and internationally.
After Culloden Highland culture changed the Scots' diaspora really took flight and there are people who come back now to visit, who may have had threads which go back hundreds of years, which started off when the Highlanders were chased off Culloden Moor and then went to the four winds.
The next steps for us now as the National Trust for Scotland to try to get a collaborative group together to improve the planning system, produce much stronger and more meaningful guidance to planners to look into the possibilities of acquiring land around Culloden so we can actually protect it for forever for everybody, also to look at long-term conservation agreements.
Can we work in partnership with local people and local landowners to protect the site?
Can we also try and measure sense of place?
We talk about its intangible qualities but most things can be measured.
So if we can come up with a physical peer-reviewed way to evaluate sense of place, we can use it to protect the site from inappropriate development.
We can also look at strengthening designations.
So UNESCO World Heritage site status for Culloden could make an important difference to us.
It will certainly raise the profile with planners and other authorities.
And of course, the biggest and the most important challenge for us is to make sure that there are no further inappropriate developments like Viewhill that we have here.
Because quite honestly, it's a travesty that as a country we're not protecting this national asset better than we are.

NARRATOR: We must act now.
We've already seen an increase in planning applications across the Moor, which is why we've created Culloden's Fighting Fund.
We need your help.
A gift to the fund will provide us with the resources to fight insensitive development and let’s us work collaboratively with local and national stakeholders to protect the cultural significance of Culloden Moor.
You can donate today at or you can text call CULLODEN, that's C-U-L-L-O-D-E-N to 70970 to donate £5.
Donate £5 by texting CULLODEN, C-U-L-L-O-D-E-N to 70970
Fundraising payments and donations will be processed and administered by the National Funding Scheme charity number 1149800 operating as DONATE.
Texts will be charged at your standard network rate.
For terms and conditions, see
Thank you.

Charles Edward Stuart – Italian dandy, selfish alcoholic or charismatic prince?

Art historian Count Peter Pininski will reveal insights into the real character of Charles Edward Stuart, who was the driving force behind the 1745 rising that ended at Culloden.

Charles Edward Stuart – Italian dandy, selfish alcoholic or charismatic prince?


so open to his daughter's influence that when Charlotte gently, patiently, made the case for
her father being gentler and positive towards her mother, Charles took this up really quite
Again, these are Charles's words, which he wrote on the 3rd of January, 1787, "Although I've
charged my dear daughter, the Duchess of Albany, to tell you how much I was moved by
your letter of the 18th of the past month, I cannot refrain from indicating also my sincere
gratitude. The prayers that you address to heaven, the wishes that you make for my
happiness and felicity, I believe most sincere, and it seems they may be realized since I
enjoy perfect health, and hope in return that you may always be in the same state. My dear
daughter, the Duchess Albany, is also at this moment in the best of health. The sweetness of
her nature, her good qualities, and her amiable companionship diminish greatly the pains
and inconveniences that are indispensably joined to my aged condition. Rest assured that I
love her, and that I shall love her with all my heart, and that I am and shall be your good
friend, Charles,"
That, to the person who I think at one time he had hated and been more furious with than to
any other living person during his entire life. Genetically lucky with regard to inborn talents,
certainly, they came in the main from the Sobieski side, whence his dynamism, military
intuition, and charisma. But alongside a brittle personality, one capable of this wonderful
charisma, kindness, empathy, generosity, perhaps not empathy, generosity of heart towards
others, even his enemies, when things are going well, but almost nothing in between. And on
the brittle side, when things go badly, lack of maturity, lack of patience, a spoiled nature
which flew into a rage characterized by high emotion, hence, his inability to cope with that
degree of emotion, that degree of frustration, producing exceedingly passionate love affairs,
extremely heavy drinking. And yet, in all of this, he had a great capacity to forgive and move
on when given a really good reason to do so.
KATIE: Thanks, Peter. It's been really interesting. I've really appreciated you taking the time
to walk through Charles's character with us. So, yeah, thank you so much. It's been
absolutely great.
NARRATOR: We must act now. The hallowed ground of Culloden battlefield is under serious
threat from inappropriate housing and other types of development. At several times in the
past 18 months, we've been surrounded by planning applications. And it takes time and
effort to try to fight them to protect this site. Please help us by donating to the Culloden
Fighting Fund. You can donate by the website at or by texting CULLODEN
to 70970, to donate five pounds. We really appreciate your help. Thank you for your support.
It means the world to us. (wind gusting)
Donate five pounds by texting CULLODEN to 70970. Fundraising payments and donations
will be processed and administered by the National Funding Scheme, charity number
1149800, operating as DONATE.
Texts will be charged at your standard network rate. For terms and conditions, see
Thank you.

The Battle of Culloden 275 years on: ideology, optimism and why we still care

Join Dr Darren S Layne as he explores why Culloden still matters, 275 years after the battle. The battlefield and visitor centre remain a site of pilgrimage for visitors, re-enactors, annual commemorators and those members of the global diaspora who have ‘come home’.

The Battle of Culloden 275 years on - Ideology, optimism and why we still care


KATIE: Good afternoon. I am very happy to welcome Dr. Darren S. Layne to join us in our
lecture this afternoon. Darren received his PhD from the University of St. Andrews. He's the
creator and curator of the Jacobite Database of 1745. And it's a study of people who were
involved in the last rising and his interests are focused on popular Jacobitism and how the
movement was expressed. And Darren is going to talk to us about the Battle of Culloden 275
Years On, Ideology, Optimism and Why We Still Care. And I have to say I'm really looking
forward to hearing you speak Darren and so I guess, over to you.
DARREN: Hi there, I'm Darren and I'm very thankful to you for joining me today to mark the
275th anniversary of the Battle of Culloden as part of this great program of NTS
commemoration events.
There's something special about Culloden, isn't there? That's why you're here spending your
time listening to this talk, instead of going about your weekend business or pleasure. This of
course is somewhat of a milestone year, perhaps somewhat of a challenging year, nearly
three centuries on on the action that took place on the moorland, just outside of Inverness in
the Highlands of Scotland. Something or some things about this battle and its legacy have
brought us all here to talk about it virtually this year. Like we have in person in many years
before this to share our thoughts and beliefs and our feelings about it, about what happened
on that field and how it still affects our lives today in many ways and for many disparate
reasons and about what might yet happen to that field, as we manage, develop and protect
the land, that forms its context.There is indeed something special, something important
about Culloden and that's why we're all here.
Before we continue, I'd like to provide a brief summary, a brief survey, of what I'm discussing
with you today, just so you know what to expect. The next 20 minutes will not draw back the
curtain on a hidden or forgotten history or disclose a wealth of game-changing new research
nor is it an attempt at either myth busting or myth-making about the facts of Culloden. I will
not be uncovering freshly discovered secrets of the field or breakthroughs and archeological
surveys that reveal shocking new perspectives of the battle. All of these things have been
covered by far more capable scholars. Some of which are also speaking on behalf of the
NTS this weekend. All of that work continues and will likely continue to continue for the rest
of our lives because there's something special about Culloden.
What I'd like to talk with you about today is why we still care so much after all these years for
such a short and tactically simple battle, Culloden leaves a long and complex legacy and
people have complex feelings about what happened there but what separates Culloden from
countless other battles through history or even just through 18th century? Why does it seem
to have so much resonance and why does it command such reverence in the hearts and the
minds of people all over the world?
Like many sites of historical significance, especially ones where thousands of human lives
are at stake, we can connect with the psychic tragedy of mass loss and the tangible effects
of that loss. Beyond this though, Culloden stands out as a symbol or a talisman of sorts into
which many different people can inset their own beliefs and feelings. Accordingly, the battle
and its legacy represent a broad scale of mental and emotional convictions and none of
them are wrong or necessarily inappropriate.

Culloden captures and conjures a collective memory of loss for many, whether that be
personal, familial, communal or national. Some believe it was targeted genocide upon
Highland culture by the British state and the result of the battle is often described as the
trigger for the death of the clan system. And even the first hint of the leader clearances both
highland and lowland. Others morally identify with the Jacobite caused by imagining with
dedication, gallantry and the sacrifice of those who came out for Bonnie Prince Charlie and
the brutality with which they're treated by the British government and its army after the
defeat. Conversely, Culloden is also a vital marker of the longevity and the vitality of the
British Empire and a rousing victory for union. It's the vast majority of Britain's on both sides
of the border who welcomed such absolute success after months of anxiety and fear.
For the many Scots who supported the Hanoverian regime of George II their self identified
patriotism and loyalty to king and country was not necessarily dependent upon a Stuart
restoration. This is what happens in civil wars and why they are so terrible. But the Jacobite
risings in Britain created a much larger ripples in the ocean of international politics than what
was just felt domestically and Culloden was the final sinkhole into which nearly a hundred
years of dynastic contention was abruptly drained. As Murray Pittock has mentioned, to
many the sacrifice more than the politics is what matters today but we still think about the
politics both in the context of the 18th Century and perhaps more so in circulated upon
modern conceptions of Scotland's place within Britain and the wider world.
It's difficult to draw direct lines between the motives and ideology of 18th Century historical
Jacobitism and those who claim to be Neo Jacobites, Stuart legitimists or Scottish
nationalists today. But many still make this claim, partly because the disappointment and the
tragedy of marshal Jacobtism's death at Culloden still speaks to them regardless of time,
regardless of dynasty, of faith or of polity today. It has represented and continues to
represent both a regrettable missed opportunity and a catastrophic lost cause.
We also still care about Culloden because of the land itself. Often described as a bare and
blasted moorland windswept and of little agricultural value. The entire Nairn river valley is
actually quite fertile ground. It's been used for thousands of years as a place of significance,
both spiritual, industrial. It has always been a graveyard as evidenced by the extensive
network of ancient burial sites and religious markers, just footsteps away from where the
fighting took place. There's a stillness in the area and perhaps something on the wind.
Quarries, mills and farms, dot the way and a forestry plantation seated squarely on the
battlefield for the better part of a century only to finally be cleared in recent years. This land
continues to support families, farms, wildlife and a vast assortment of spectacular flora.
Therefore Culloden is a life-giving field as well as a life taking field.
We haven't always cared about Culloden as we do today. Around the time of the building of
a new visitor center in 2007, geography and heritage scholars, John and Margaret Gold,
convincingly traced the lineage of popular memory of the battle by looking at how it had been
represented and remembered through history. They pointed out that in the decades directly
after the battle, very few visitors were attracted to the moor and the journals of travelers to
the area were far more likely to mention other landmarks and natural features than the killing
field itself. It wasn't until the early 19th Century that a more sentimental remembrance of
Culloden began to take hold driven by the romantic works of Austin and Scott, as well as a
general transformation in the way that commemorative practices were viewed across the

world. The ubiquitous memorial cairn at the center of the field and the clan gravestones were
not placed until the 1880s and by that time, the living memory of the battle as well as the
immediate danger of a Jacobite driven revolution, had faded into something more tolerant to
borrow a term from Daniel Sachi a certain optimistic memory of the entire dreadful endeavor.
Books, film and heritage interpretation took it from there all of which have contributed to why
we can, should and do care. Alison Landsberg calls this prosthetic memory or the acquisition
of the memory of others often through interpretive sites like museums and battlefields. That
memory itself is evolving and adapting helped along by a number of different sources of
historical presentation.
History is indeed interpreted and experiential. It is not simply one account of what definitively
happened from a single point of view or perspective. Naturally the study of historical
occurrences, like what happened at Culloden, are also interpreted. If we weren't present we
can partially rely on accounts from those who were. The more coverage in this way that we
have access to, the more detail we can glean from being there in absentia. The riots at the
US Capitol earlier this year, for instance, are incredibly well covered because of all the
technology brought to bear on recording the proceedings in real time. Of course, 275 years
on from what took place at Culloden things are much more difficult to pin down. If only the
combatants had been equipped with smartphones. Yet we don't care about Culloden
because of facts. We care about it because of the feelings associated with depictions and
experiences of others and how that's portrayed today.
How do we know what we know about the Battle of Culloden? Three general categories of
information helped to shape our understanding of what happened. Our memories of why it
matters and why we still care. First, popular media like historical fiction, film and news
articles. These are generally aimed at a broad public audience and often have fiscal
objectives driving them. Accordingly, the more tantalizing they appear the more likely these
sources will hook people in, elicit clicks and views on websites and social media and
encourage the purchase of subscriptions and volumes, merchandise. They're the least
regulated by accuracy or historiographical guidance and some are intentionally designed
with the purpose of melding history and fantasy together or blurring the lines between them.
Second, scholarly research using primary and secondary sources. Any library catalog or
internet search will reveal a massive number of scholarly books on the Jacobite era and
most of these include some reference to Culloden if not expressly focusing on the battle
itself, Many are synthesized from primary accounts but some don't use a single primary
source. With these often come the biases or agendas of a particular historian, as often as we
are trained not to fall prey to them. And while plenty of books are available in the open
market, accessibility can be a real issue for some of the academic presses which tend to
print short runs and charge exorbitant prices for both physical and digital copies.
Third are archival sources from eyewitnesses or others directly connected to the events.
These are generally the most useful sources to consult but also the most difficult to access.
The good news is that numerous collections have recently been digitized and are accessible
remotely to anyone with certain library memberships or archived accounts. The bad news is
that some of these repositories have been monetized for profit corporations who restrict
access in favor of institutional subscriptions, which does very little to help place the sources
in front of our eyes. Furthermore, even eye witness accounts can be heavily biased and

should be considered as contextual evidence rather than bulletproof statements of fact. Take
the numerous published memoirs of Jacobite commanders for instance, many of which are
predicated upon deferral of blame and whose pros can barely contain the frustration and
contempt for the disaster that followed.
All of these sources contribute to our knowledge, the battle and inform the nature of our
care. The more we read, the more it helps to shape and transform our prosthetic memory.
No matter which sources we consult, there'll always be pitfalls. This can be frustrating but it
should also provide incentive to responsibly consume the information that most evokes our
interest. History is sculpted after all by the stories that we tell ourselves and others.
Changing pace a bit, I would like to share with you one of the reasons why I care about
Culloden. When I walked the field or when I look at the delicate artifacts from the battle on
display at different museums or when I leaf through a bundle of old documents in the
archives, I think about the individuals on both sides whose lives embodied this conflict and
our study of it today. The recreation of it in our minds. My love of history was first founded by
reflecting upon the experiences of the common person, perhaps a less glamorous subject to
some, the field of study focuses on kings and queens, princes and other elites. I've always
wanted to find out more about why so many thousands of people participated in the Jacobite
challenge and why so many tens of thousands did not. Ideologies of course, are at the heart
of any politics. Any social progression and any faith, without them, these causes and
movements gathered no steam and have no propensity to develop.
But the question remains, how did the great majority of people in the Jacobite army view
what they were doing? Why were they there? Was it these ideologies that propelled them or
with they driven largely by more personal or practical reasons? I think that if we'd had the
chance to stroll through the Jacobite lines at Culloden and have a chat with some of the
combatants there just before the battle, you might be surprised by some of the reasons they
would offer.
The great bulk of my own research bears out that as we ask more questions about their
personal motives, the monolithic ideological bulwarks of Jacobitism with which we're so
familiar, tend to fade in the light of more immediate and practical considerations. Separating
these concepts into spheres is not suggesting we're mutually exclusive, rather it gives us a
greater depth of understanding about the individual motivations and the real people who
stood on that moor at Culloden 275 years ago this weekend. For me, it bridges the divide of
years and provides an angle of empathy that helps me understand the stakes more clearly
and helps inform the nature of my care. Perhaps you might also consider this the next time
you're able to visit the battlefield in person and especially if you'll be visiting for the very first
You may have gotten here to your interest in the Jacobite era from any number of different
roads. It might have been from your schooling, in childhood or a university as an adult.
Maybe it was sparked from the pomp and glamor of historical reenactment or maybe the
tactical curiosity of war gaming. You could very well have ancestors who were somehow
involved with one or the other side of the Jacobite risings or maybe both. Perhaps you were
first hooked in by works of historical fiction like John Prebble or you were startled by the
documentary like realism of Peter Watkins or like millions of people in recent years, you were

first introduced to the Jacobite era and the battle of Culloden by the extraordinary
phenomenon commonly known as the Outlander effect.
I'd like to say now explicitly that any of these roads or reasons for your interest are totally
acceptable because you're here now, how you got here is beside the point. If anybody,
self-professed expert or otherwise, tries to guard the intellectual or emotional gate against
your excitement and enthusiasm or tells you that you don't really understand what happened
at Culloden, I encourage you to ignore them. You're here now and your interest in the
subject and your own personal reasons for caring are the only things that really matter.
We've all still got a lot more to learn and discover about the battle, the people who were
engaged within it and the land itself upon which they bled.
Thank you for spending this time with me and I hope to see you again in about 25 years for
the 300th anniversary, if not well before that.
KATIE: Thank you so much, Darren. That was a really personal and memorable talk and I
thought it was absolutely great and would absolutely echo what you've just said. Culloden is
a place for everyone. So thanks again. I appreciate you taking the time to join us this
DARREN: Thanks so much for having me, Katey, it was a pleasure to speak with you.
NARRATOR: We must act now. The hallowed ground of Culloden battlefield is under serious
threat from inappropriate housing and other types of development. At several times in the
past 18 months we've been surrounded by planning applications and it takes time and effort
to try to fight them to protect this site.
Please help us by donating to the Culloden Fighting Fund. You can donate by the website at or by texting Culloden to 70970 to donate five pounds. We really
appreciate your help. Thank you for your support, it means the world to us.
Donate five pounds by texting CULLODEN to 70970 Fundraising payments and donations
will be processed and administered by the National Funding Scheme, charity number
1149800 operating as DONATE.
Texts will be charged at your standard network rate. For terms and conditions, see
Thank you.

The Gaelic Society of Inverness and the National Trust for Scotland commemoration of the 275th anniversary of the Battle of Culloden

275th Anniversary of Culloden


MURDO CAMPBELL (in Gaelic): A warm welcome to you all wherever you are watching
this from in the world. The Gaelic Society of Inverness have held an annual service at
Culloden since 1925 on the Saturday nearest to the date of the battle.
Unfortunately in March 2020 a pandemic hit the world which meant we hadn`t been able to
hold this service. We didn't want this to be the situation this year and whilst we are unable to
hold the service on site in the normal way we are delighted to be able to broadcast the
service on line in conjunction with The National Trust for Scotland at Culloden.
You will hear a lecture from the Gaelic Society of Inverness`s Chief Martin MacGregor. You
will hear a pipe tune from the society's renowned piper Euan MacCrimmon. The society's
bard Maoilios Caimbeul has composed a poem and will recite it here. There was a custom at
Gaelic services that lining out or precenting was used when singing psalms, due mainly to
lack of psalm books. You will hear this from a previous service held at Culloden.
RAOUL CURTIS-MACHIN: Welcome to Culloden Battlefield from the National Trust for
Scotland on this the 275th anniversary of the Battle of Culloden. On this day 275 years ago
the last rising of the Jacobites was brutally crushed and Highland culture changed forever. At
the National Trust for Scotland we feel privileged to be looking after the battlefield and we
want to thank you for joining us today to help commemorate the fallen.
EUAN MacCRIMMON: [bagpipe music and scenes of the battlefield]
KATEY BOAL: Welcome Dr Martin MacGregor. Dr MacGregor is a senior lecturer in Scottish
history at the University of Glasgow, specialising in the history of the Highlands, or Gaelic
Scotland, in particular in reference to the Middle Ages, so about 1300 to 1600, and the use
of Gaelic orientated and Gaelic sources. I'm really looking forward to hearing what you have
to say. So please, Dr MacGregor...
DR MARTIN MacGREGOR (in Gaelic): I am Martin MacGregor, and it is a great honour for
me to be the chief of the Gaelic Society of Inverness this year. On behalf of the Society, a
warm welcome to you all. 275 years ago, the battle of Culloden took place. It is not at
Culloden and in person, but by other means, that we have to come together this year, but for
all that our thoughts are there, and our sympathy is with those who suffered at the battle, or
because of it: Jacobites and Hanoverians, Gaels and non-Gaels, men women, children.
Culloden raises many fundamental questions about the history and place of the Gaels in
Scotland. Some still hold that this was the most significant event and turning point in our
history; that the world of the clans came to an end on this one day. Others believe that this
world was already in the grip of great change well before Culloden, and that Culloden was
another milestone on that road: a major milestone to be sure, but perhaps not as important
as others, such as Waterloo for example. But is a road the most appropriate metaphor for
our history, with some willing to connect Culloden with other milestones – the suppression of
the Lordship of the Isles, the Statutes of Iona, the Massacre of Glencoe, the Clearances and
above all else the loss of language – to produce a straight-line narrative of the going down of
the Gaels in Scotland; or is our history better understood as a circle capable of renewal and
resurrection? Who are we believe made our history in any case: the Gaels as a whole, or the
clan chiefs who compelled the population to follow their will, or government and authority
which was always based outside the Highlands, and without Gaelic? If the Gaels did indeed
possess the freedom and capacity to make their own history, what were their reasons for
supporting the Stewarts, and dying on their behalf on Culloden Moor?
In what follows I would like to say a little on these questions, through the lens of the songs
which were made by those who sided with the Jacobites. I am following the path taken by
Professor William Gillies, a former chief of the Society, in his fine essay ‘Gaelic Songs of the
’45’ – the best scholarly contribution on the subject to date, in my view. We are all aware that
very little Gaelic poetry and song has come down to us from the other side, or was made on
that side in the first place, and that in itself tells us something. But the Jacobite songs
contain a range of views and voices, and I shall seek to bring these out.
It is appropriate to begin with a soldier who fought at Culloden, and barely escaped with his
life, John Roy Stewart. At the start of this song it seems as if we are indeed at the road’s
end, with no reason for hope left:
O I am in anguish,
My heart has sunk low,
Tears often fall to my heel from my eyesight.
My hearing’s deserted me,
I don’t hear at this time
Anything cheerful slowly or quickly.
But even before the end of the song the road has become a circle, that will yet revolve:
But fortune’s wheel will come round
A turn from north or from south,
And our foe will get evil’s reward …
And we will all be at last,
Both the old and the young,
Under our true king whom it’s right to obey.
We find the same perspective at the start of another poem composed after Culloden, by
Alexander MacDonald, Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair:
Cold and rainy is each day,
Each night dark and stormy;
Sad and gloomy is each day,
Close, and misty laden;
But waken up, O people,
And put your sorrow from you,
Put away your grief,
A jewel there is, by wind and sea,
To be in Aeolus’ and Neptune’s keeping,
And after him shall come all joy.
The jewel is Charles Edward Stewart, who was born in Rome in 1720, and for several
reasons John MacLachlan’s poem composed to celebrate the birth bears comparison with
the words of the two other poets:
A Phoenix is born o’er in Rome,
A tale of great joy in its time;
May he who the King's right maintains
Have strength and justice and aid;
Fortune's wheel will yet turn again
And the man who’s aloft will fall low,
The man who is climbing will rise,
And the other to earth down will fall.
A further comparison may be made with the vision of a poet in the era of the Clearances.
About 50 years after Culloden, Allan MacDougall testified to a new devastation that had
come to the Highlands:
Cows and calves are not seen in a glen,
Or horses, hardly, being harnessed;
It was the essence of the prophecy
That the plough would become redundant ...
As the poem’s editor (Professor Donald Meek, also a former chief of the Society) explains,
the prophecy the poet has in mind here is ‘The jawbone of the sheep will cause the plough to
be put on the hen-roost’. But the wheel comes full circle come the era of the Highland Land
Wars, in the song composed by John MacRae which he himself sang at a large gathering of
crofters in Loch Carron schoolhouse on 11 March 1886. The song begins:
The plough has indeed been placed on the hen-roost,
And the arable land has been laid waste;
What has been taken from us is precisely
What our forefathers had on rent …
But then comes the transformation:
But the plough will be taken off the hen-roost,
And the garrons set in harness;
The arable land will be ploughed by them,
And the poor folk will get their fill …
A straight road in steady decline, or a wheel in constant motion? It seems as if a dialogue
between these two visions is to be seen in our history and poetry from the first, a dialogue
‘without end, without respite’. Piobaireachd Dhomhnaill Duibh is one of our oldest surviving
songs, and is sometimes taken as a sort of affirmation of the first of these visions:
Today went, today went,
Today went against us,
Today went, today went,
Today went against us,
Today went, today went,
Today went against us,
O, today went, yesterday went,
Every day went against us.
But an answer to this comes in the twentieth century in the ending of The Cuillin, the famous
poem by Sorley MacLean (himself bard to the Gaelic Society of Inverness):
Beyond the lochs of the blood of the children of men
Beyond the frailty of the plain and the labour of the mountain,
Beyond poverty, consumption, fever, agony,
Beyond hardship, wrong, tyranny, distress,
Beyond misery, despair, hatred, treachery,
Beyond guilt and defilement; watchful,
Heroic, the Cuillin is seen
Rising on the other side of sorrow.
Now we return to the work of the poets in the Jacobite era, to explore what the poems and
songs can tell us about the bond between the Gaels and the Stewarts. If we accept the
testimony of the government and the Hanoverians, the Gaels were willing to take up arms
against them because they were natural-born rebels: savages consumed by poverty and
greed, only interested in plundering others, and slaves to the will of the clan chiefs. We are
wearily familiar with this caricature, although it still exerts an influence over the
representation of the Gaels in the Jacobite era, in literature and elsewhere. The literature
often adduces a further reason that drew the Gaels together, namely hatred of the
Campbells. The world of Gaelic Jacobite song is almost completely different, and although
we are conscious that what we have here is an imagining of another kind which is not
necessarily synonymous with the truth, it may be said that the Gaelic voices of the poets
bring us closer to home, while also encapsulating the precious range of views already
From beginning to end ‘royalism’ is the prime cause for supporting the Stewarts. They are
the legitimate kings of Scotland of old, and thus it is with them that lies the right to the crown,
and justice. According to Aonghas Mac Alasdair Ruaidh, the Glencoe Bard, speaking of
James VII, this justification supersedes religion or the lack of it:
It is not permissible for us to turn aside from,
Or suppress our temporal king,
For, from the moment he was first conceived,
He was the true rightful heir.
No difference of faith,
Or even lack of faith, may draw us away;
Without legal authority,
It is a treacherous thing for us to renounce him.
Although the view of Iain mac Ailein, the MacLean bard, gives greater weight to divine right,
we register that he, no less than Aonghas mac Alasdair Ruaidh, identifies something which
may act as a restraint upon loyalty to the king: legal authority in the one case, and tyranny in
the other:
In my opinion – I may have little understanding,
But I shall take leave to express it –
Whomever God appoints king,
We ought to submit to him …
And, though he follow his own free will,
So long as he does not oppress us,
Do you think it either lawful or reasonable
To jump at his throat?
Although the Act of Union between Scotland and England in 1707 gave impetus to the
Jacobites, it made for a difference in the way they presented themselves in Lowlands and
Highlands. In the Lowlands, where they found it harder to make headway with the general
population, the opportunity was taken to advance the Stewarts as the means of expunging
the Act, and the hardship and misrule attendant upon it. Despite this, popular support
remained lukewarm, and Lowland Scots protested against their condition in ways other than
following the Stewarts. In the Highlands the right of the Stewarts remained at the heart of the
rhetoric of the poets, but now at times in a new nationalist dress: identification with Scotland
and the status of Scotland. Here is the patriotic vision of first Iain mac Ailein and then Sìleas
na Ceapaich at the time of the Rising of 1715:
When the best-born of the Lowlands
Advance with all their fame,
Many snorting horses
Will prance with delight;
Englishmen will lose
In spite of all they’ve done,
And the Frenchman with his camp
Will be ready right behind them …
And Sìleas:
But arise, Scotland, as one,
Before the English cut your throats,
Since they have robbed you for gold
Of your credit and your possessions
Which is not in your pocket today.
Iain Dubh is willing to acknowledge that there is a question mark over whether the Jacobite
forces will come together as they should:
If all the brave warriors
Were together at one time,
With one definite plan
And no slant or digression,
All as sure as one person
And fixed on the prize,
To the threats of the English
They will firmly reply.
In similar vein, after the Jacobites lost the best opportunity they were ever to have at the
Battle of Sheriffmuir, Sìleas na Ceapaich is willing to criticise the nobles who fled, and even
James VIII the Old Pretender, who had not arrived in time:
I would tell you a reasoned story
If I were given a hearing now:
That people were killing each other on behalf of King James,
While he himself had not come from France …
The Marquis of Huntly with the well-shod horses
Fled back out of the rank;
The Earl of Seaforth of the precious banners,
It were shameful to tell of what happened to him …
Coming finally to the ’45, in a song made before the Prince’s arrival, Aonghas mac Alasdair
Ruadh, the Glencoe Bard – if it is he – reiterates that right, justice and God are with the
Stewarts, but prefaces this with frank admission of the dangers which the Jacobite rank and
file will face:
Let not sound of gunfire
Make your flesh cautious,
Horo, make ready to go;
Nor muskets of dark-blue
Destroy aught your hoping,
Horo, make ready to go.
When that sound has passed over
Your danger has ended,
You’ll be at close quarters
As was ever your custom;
Let each man be enduring,
Thrusting, and striking,
Mighty, and valiant,
And no foe shall abide you,
Horo, make ready to go.
It shall give you great courage
That your own cause is righteous,
Horo, make ready to go;
Your conscience is with you,
And justice will aid you,
Horo, make ready to go.
’Tis not thus with our foemen,
Though they are very powerful,
Their conscience will plague them
Since to George they have yielded;
You will be steadfast,
Patient in suffering,
Fearless in danger,
Take God to protect you,
Horo, make ready to go.
In another song, Nighean Aonghais Òig follows in the footsteps of Sìleas na Ceapaich as
she attempts to persuade the chief of the MacDonalds of Sleat to take part in the rising, to
no avail as it proved:
But, O noble Sir Alasdair,
Will you not soon come forward;
To me, long is your waiting
Without following after;
With thy numerous standards,
Many a hundred in thy party,
Since thou’rt wont to be wounding
Let thy keen hounds go forward.
Thy clan is in sorrow
That thou now hesitatest,
Since ’tis elbow to elbow
Gives best strength in danger;
For what cause ’neath the heavens
To which you set shoulder exists,
That you could not be
Foremost in winning?
In the songs of Alexander MacDonald, there is now a unity between the right of the
Jacobites and nationalism, as he criticises in the one breath the rough treatment meted out
to the Stewart kings since they moved to England, and the Act of Settlement of 1701 by
which the English parliament accepted the Hanoverian succession:
O Charles son of James, son of James, son of Charles,
With thee I’d go gladly, when the call sounds for marching,
And not with that vile herd, the offspring of swine! ...
And had not the English betrayed and forsaken thee,
The crown had been gained for King James with thy courage,
In spite of the beast and his followers vile …
You have broken the law that was kept down the ages,
By disowning King James to gain favour with William,
Soon after you’d murdered our goodly King Charles;
Only one of the Stewarts wore the crown with your goodwill,
Of the true rightful line of the family royal,
That you slew not by treason, poison, or axe …
O, thin’s the string, King George,
On which you harped to win three realms;
And false the Act which clad you with the kingship over us;
Full fifty folk and more
Have better claims, and truer blood
Than you, in Europe’s continent;
Remote and bent and weak
The female branch from which you came,
Far distant on the tree.
Alexander MacDonald is reckoned to be the foremost Gaelic poet of the ’45, but it is not with
his voice that I wish to conclude; or with the voice of the soldier, John Roy Stewart,
lamenting his comrades who fell at Culloden as ‘true brave Fingalian heroes’; but with the
voice of a woman and widow, who laments but the one man, her own:
And there stood not at Culloden
A braver man in your mould
My young bright love.
Cairìstiona Ferguson – if it is she – recounts the time of waiting until it became clear that her
husband would not return:
I believed for a while
That my husband was living
And that you would come home
With a joke and a greeting;
But the time has gone past
And I don’t see your likeness,
And until I am buried
Your love will not leave me,
My bright young love.
In an objective voice which reminds us of Sìleas na Ceapaich and Nighean Aonghais Òig,
she puts the Jacobite cause and the right of the Stewarts in the scales with her husband,
and rejects them:
Och young Charles Stewart,
Your cause has destroyed me,
You’ve taken all I had
In a war fought for you;
It’s not for cattle or kinsfolk
I’m distraught, but my husband
Since he left me bereft
With nothing in the world but a shirt,
My young bright love.
Who now will lift the sword
Or cause the throne to be filled
Is scarce my concern
Since my first love lives not;
But how could I find in my nature
To deny what I want
When my desire is so strong
To put in place of my good king
My young bright love?
Who among us would be able to say to this woman that Culloden was not the end of a road,
or that she would ever see the Cuillin rising on the other side of sorrow?
KATEY BOAL: Thank you. I really appreciate you taking the time to come and speak to us. I
hope everyone has enjoyed that as much as I did.
GAELIC PSALM SINGING: [set to pictures of the 2019 anniversary and the laying of the
wreaths in 2021]
MAOILIOS CAIMBEUL (in Gaelic): When I wrote this poem, I had a picture in my mind of
what had happened in the two or three centuries after Culloden. No doubt, Culloden had a
massive effect – although it was by no means the only thing – on the nature of today’s
Highlands. Good and bad things happened, but, as it says in the poem, ‘the mountains will
remain’. ‘The mountains’ represent the things that cannot be taken from us, what comes
from the heart, the most precious values in the lives of people, faithfulness, loyalty and love
for God and country. No government can take these away from us.
Loss and Gain
They came, first, and deprived us
of our freedom,
the freedom to fight and protect.
Things were moving, improving,
better cannon and new ways of killing,
the tacksman exiled
and the chiefs with love of gold.
But the mountains remained
and the deer were still on Creag Uanach.
They came and took away
our life and living on the land,
the best soil for rocks and turf,
But still we kept the tie between us and the earth,
scraping a living from sheaf and gleaning,
milk from the cow, and when necessary,
trout from the stream.
They came and gave us
a new education with new equipment.
No need any more for crofts,
for cattle or the planting
of seed in the ground.
But the mountains remained.
They deprived us of the ancient knowledge,
the old tales of the old ways,
our heritage, and in their place they put
new songs to make a new heart.
They gave us cars, supermarkets,
gear without end, development boards,
fish farms, shellfish farms,
deer farms, nuclear power,
electric light, water on tap,
visitors and people who stay,
people who stay and people who frequent.
They came and gave us.
But the mountains will remain.
They gave us money,
all the city’s mod cons,
sin and grace,
rubbish and polluted water.
Great wide roads through the glens.
They found what they sought –
nature enslaved and power
over life and death.
A finger on the button.
Like a god.
Isn’t it wonderful how well you have done?
But the mountains will remain.
KATIE BOAL: The story of Culloden is universal. It is a story of war, violence and the
communities that emerged from it. These combine to create a sense of place that you can
really sense here on the battlefield and we are actively working to preserve it. Culloden is a
site that has a future and, with your help, we can look after it for the folks to come.
MURDO CAMPBELL (in Gaelic): We have held this service in remembrance of those that
lost their lives and those that suffered in the aftermath of the battle. This was the last battle
that was fought on British soil. The culture and the language of the Gaels was under threat
at that time. Our culture is still very much alive and our Gaelic language is being resurrected
by our young people along with Gaelic bodies and the expansion of Gaelic schools. We
applaud them. The Gaelic Society of Inverness is proud to be able to bring this to the notice
of the wider world.
I hope that if we are spared that we will be able to hold our service at Culloden as in
previous years on 16th April 2022 and that some of you will be able to attend. Many thanks
for your attendance on line.

Our live afternoon event sessions, with Q&As

Afternoon event: part 1


KATEY BOAL: Welcome, welcome everyone,I'm so pleased to have folks joining us for our commemoration event.We're just gonna give you a moment to go get yourself a cup of tea,get yourself settled in and we will be starting very shortly.And I'll hand off to Raoul Curtis-Machin at that point.But, please get yourself ready for what is looking to be a really interesting morning of talks.
- Well, welcome everybody to"Culloden - a place worth protecting",our online event to mark the 275th Anniversary of the Battle of Culloden.Thank you all for joining us.We had started planning this event well in advance and of course with the tragic eventswith Duke of Edinburgh last week, this meant that it was a too complicated job for us to actually cancel and try and shift this event,so, we've rejigged the content so we will finish in plenty of time to mark the sad funeral.So, thanks again for joining us.We have, basically, a game of two very exciting halves this morning,which takes us through some of the most exciting research that we are starting to uncover about the battle,from the interpretation of the LiDAR data and Derek Alexander will present on that.And we also have Professor Christopher Duffy's latest map research and account research looking at the battle and the various troop movements and actions during the battle.This is of vital importance to us at Culloden.I should have said earlier, sorry. I'm just the operations manager, I'm not expert on Culloden.It's my job to keep everything running here, but we absolutely rely 100% on the latest researchand the latest analysis to help us inform the public about the battle of Culloden, and to a certain extent to bust the myths and to try our best to be accurate when we can.I know we do make mistakes from time to time, but, research like this gives us the best possible opportunity to actually set the record straight on Culloden and tell a broader audience about what happened here on this day.So, without further ado, I'm gonna introduce Professor Christopher Duffy.Christopher read history at Balliol College, Oxford, then he lectured in War Studiesat the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst,the British equivalent of West Point in the States,while always maintaining private interestsin 18th century warfare.Christopher retired on hitting the age bar in 1996and he has had a very strongand well loved connection from our sidewith the National Trust for Scotland at Culloden since 1998.He's a great supporter of all the thingswe're trying to do here,and we owe him a massive debt of gratitude.He joined the English Court Witness Serviceas a volunteer in 2002,working at a National High Security Court from 2014.Forensic evidence has had a major effecton his methods of researchand we will learn more about that approachand where it's got us in our understanding of the battle.So, over to you Christopher, thank you.- Thank you very much, Raoul.I'm facing some very unpalatable truths.I'm not going to beat about the bush.They are faced in the nearest futurewith the loss of the whole of the battlefield,which lies outside the keepingof the National Trust for Scotland.The pace of development is unrelenting,and response has not been tremendously effective.I'm afraid I've lost my vision at the present time,could I have the back on the screen?There we are, thank you very much."Culloden in Physical Microhistory.What there is to defend. What there is to acquire."And a little note on the bottom."Contact cduffy1757@gmail.comfor historically-based assessmentof the impact of threatened developmenton any point of the Battlefield of Culloden."Now this idea, a good idea or bad idea,occurred to me in a germ form about three years ago.I thought there should be a single,accessible point of reference,which anybody could go to to get an instant read-backon special development at any typical point of Culloden.Presented to them in a form, which if they desired,they could put before the Culloden South Planning Committeeof the Highland Council in the due form.I'll give them findings on this.Because at the moment the only thing whichcounts in the so-called planning system,in fact, planning anarchy,is objections entered in due formagainst any specific developmentwith the Inverness South Planning Committeeof the Highland Council.It is the only thing which counts.Even this cannot stand necessarily,because even if the Highland Councildecides against any particular development,the case will be carried by a developerto the Department of Planning and Environmental Affairsof the Scottish Government.And this DPEA, in its wisdom, will appoint an adjudicator,a reporter, to make a legally binding adjudication.This reporter will be a civil engineer or surveyor.His knowledge of the battle could be written on aairline boarding card and still leave plenty of space.I would have the infamous exampleof what happened at Culloden.In that case the reporter was a civil engineerwhose background was in Waste Industrial Disposal.In effect you could say,Culloden was treated as a waste disposal site.Uncannily, one of the word program processorsrenders Drummossie as Dumpsite,and unless you watch out for that when you're typing out,what your printer actually works,you can send things off say to theDrummossie War Hotel labeled Dumpsite Hotel.Not a good thing to do.This notion stayed with me.I regretted very much from the start taking it on'cause I hadn't realised what it actually implied.Far more work than I had envisaged.If I had known what was involvedI would have walked away immediately.Most disturbing, and involved me very soonin something I didn't want to do,was to actually reassess the course of the battle,which was very far from my intention.Could I have the next one please?Next slide please.Thank you very much.Let's have a look at this slidewhich I hope is there on your screen.We have adapted from the Ordnance Survey,the battlefield as it stands today.Best way to start is driving up the B9006from the West or the left on your screen.The ground gradually ascends, describes a curve,which is the deviation of the road carried out in the 1980sto carry it north of the supposedNorthern visage of the battlefield,and then it actually resumes it's original course.And this road correspondswith the original Moor Road of 1746.In the middle we have the propertyin the keeping of the National Trust,outlined in green, with various key points.And this as you can see,covers only really a relatively small areaof the whole battle area, which,it can pretty well define as the whole areaon this particular screen.You have familiar points; the visitor centre,the car park, Leanach Cottage,Well of the Dead, and so on.So, the modern field.The problem is development, obviously,and I've added in red some of the more obvious intrusions.At at the top we have the infamous Viewhill,which the authorities assured us in their wisdomwhen they granted this permission,will be invisible from the visitor centre.But we know they're wrong.Not only is it visible from the visitor centre,it's visible from the far side of the River Nairn,you can see on the bottom right-hand corner of the screen.So much for the authority.I'll ask you to look in particularat the left centre of the map,and agricultural development we have herewhich can be even more damagingthan outright construction of a housing estate.We have a very intrusive new barn set upand a new agricultural road,which turns roughly South-Southwest, West-Southwest,and executes an acute left-hand turn,to the neighborhood of the present King's Stables.I'll ask you to remember this roadwhen you see how it continues on.And this road is going to be very important indeedfrom the aspect of conservation.Now, I'd assumed when I started this workthat there would be plenty of actual information available.In fact, the information available on Cullodenin original sources and secondary literatureis unequaled in European history,until we come to the Battle of Waterlooor the American Civil War.Tiny battle, but massive in terms ofactual documentation and secondary description.The trouble is, there's very little specific detail in it.If you go back to the original sources,the only specific features ever mentioned by anybody,apart from the general bogginess,are the two sets of walled enclosures.And I was completely stuckin the couple of weeks of undertaking my work.I then went to the last resource, which was maps.So, I think here, I'm going to agree with Derek, are,probably are almost certainlymaps that are our greatest single source of information.And I'm going to start withthe most important map of them all.The next slide please.This is the Ordnance Survey,first of the kind of anywhere in Britain,carried out under the supervision of theorder of Ordnances chief draftsman,a civilian, William Roy,at the express command of the Duke of Cumberland.Between 1747 and 1755, the express intended purpose,preventing the army getting lost in Scotlandwhich it had done many times before.General impression, I think, there's very little there.Very few landmarks.The only really saner onesare the ones who associated with Culloden Houseand its walled enclosures, Culloden Park enclosure.And, can you see the adjacent jutting out parttowards the top of the estate,and something which looks likea number "3" written in red?Well, that's Culloden House.That actually stuck out from theEastern Culloden Park's wall.This has all, as far as we know,completely vanished from the landscape today.But attempts to reconstitute it are extremely important.I'll just ask you to look a little bit at a little roadwhich is a stretch of the Moor Road,looking past the Southern edge of the Culloden Parks Wall.But for William Roy the main road at this period,is something which is almost completely vanished now.When you look at the bottom left-hand corner of the map,we have double parallel lines,the road up to the commanding height of Balvraid,and gently downhill curving gently to the rightand on past the Little Leanach Cottage.Little Leanach clump with houses, and on,getting most of the landscapewhich is then just beyond Meikle Lionach.And this for William Roy,was the principal road of the period,and that is going to havea significant effect on the battle,an effect which has so far not actually beenpicked up by other historians.They have the light, classically, even those days,falling from the Northwest.And you can see the ground falls away quite steeplytowards the bottom right-hand corner of the map,towards the valley of the River Nairn,more gently towards the North.But the most important feature of the whole mapis the area of bog,it's kind of looking like a dismembered octopusto the bottom right and centre right of the map.This is probably the original Cuil Lodair,yellow bog of Culloden,and that was going to exercise a major effecton the form the battle actually took.Now, the Roy map is the only one with a scale, 1:36,000.All the other maps you're going to be looking athave little or no indication of scale.At least, I found a very simple way within one minute,of identifying what the scale was in units of 800 meters.Then there's a business of magnetic declination,adjusting Map North to Real North.And the magnetic declination in this part of Scotlandin 1746 was 18.3 degrees west of Grid North.So, once you got the scale that's fine,and then you pivot the map,any map to the right 18.3 degreesand you get coherence with present Real North.The next one please.Now, this is interpreting what we've seenin terms of the ups and downs and the road systems.Now towards the top left of the Culloden House Wall,The Moor Road, the present B9006, running close under it,then continuing on towards the region of Little Leanach.At Little Leanach it's joined bywhat I'll call the Ridge Road,the one we saw on William Roy's map,coming up from the Southwest,running through the Leanach enclosure, very important point,and merging with the Moor Road,just short of Little Leanach.And here we have the bog transferred to this map.And one branch of the bog actually reachesinto the Trust bubbleYou see it there, very close to the bitwhere it rises to the cairn,enters the boggy hollow by the Well of the Dead,and at that time continued as a feeder of the Great Bog.This little stream is now being divertedto the North but via a canal,but originally, it ran to the left.And looking at a li...Looking at recent LiDAR photographwhich I then showed it yesterdayand comparing this with Google map, there's, I think,something of a hint of change of vegetation,which you can even trace at the present timecorresponding with this particular branch of the map.Next one please.Here we start with a pretty stupid map,but a very important one.It was scribbled by Colonel Joseph Yorke,one of the aide-de-camps to the Duke of Cumberland,probably within hours of the battle.And this reflects what's important to himand probably also to the captainabout their impressions in the battle.Before they engage in any kind of (indistinct)of any fantasy cartography.We have, to the North, we see the Culloden Parks,and the Moor Roads skirting,just almost touching the South Eastern salient.It inclines North and follows, skirts the line of bogs,which here look like strings of sausagesbut are in fact William Roy's bogs,as he showed in much more detail in the map we've just seen.He has the Jacobite Army on the left,forming up in advance of the Garden Parks Wall,and the Hanoverian Party on the right.Next map please.Looking at a more sensible map,we have the one by John Finlaysonwho was the commander of the artilleryof the Jacobite's in the battle.And his map, we don't know when it was completed,but probably by about 1751.He was very soon amnestied after the rising.He was described as an instrument,mathematical instrument maker of Edinburgh,and he was the one person with an opportunityto revisit the site of the battle,which he almost certainly did.And we have here,what's sort of like a rather confusing sets of blobs,but he provided a very detailed keywhich is just off this picture herewhich enables us to identify exactly what they were.And this is actually very, very importantfor purposes of our work.Just want to check one or two details of this.Now, we have a matching map by thecartographer of the Duke of Cumberland.Thomas Sandby is cartographer and artistand his map, again with that of Finlayson,was the best detail we have for thecourse and alignment and the positions of the armies.Now I wasn't, I'm not able to show the map by Thomas Sandbybecause my one available copy was rather muzzy,but Derek will be showing you a much better print of itwhen he starts his talk.Next one please.Now, this map was completedabout two and a half or three weeks ago.I had been waiting in vain fornews of Historic Environment Scotland,primarily for it's work on identifyingthe Culloden Parks Wall,and I had to go for broke on what I thoughtwas the best information.Now, just orientation,we have the Culloden Parks Wall on the left,the Culwhiniac enclosure,it's up to the wall there on the right,and the (indistinct) Leanach enclosure just standing off.The usual bog there.And we have the forming up position of the Jacobite Army.Now this is something I have not been able to identify,how exactly, what exactly the extent of the army wasat this stage.My aim had been, for useful purposes, to traceactions and geography within a maximum of 10 of 100 meters.That was my aim, to be of any use.I wasn't able to do it at thisforming up position simply because themaps and comments are so contradictory.Then we find the Jacobite Army merging into the openand extending into the left.Again, a lot more work actually needs to be doneon the actual composition of these so-calledclan regiments in particular,because though they bear the name of different clans,in fact they're of a very mixed populationas it has been identified by recent researchby Dr. Darren Layne of Oregon.Now in all this, I was just going to touch very briefly,on areas of particular interest and reassess them.And I'll leave at the moment, the armies there,and turn to what Cumberland had in mind.First of all, he found it very, very difficultto approach the battlefield,because of the way it was obstructed by the Great Bog,and he had to cram his armies to do a single massive columnand approach the battlefield from the Northeast.Eventually, his right hand column,emerging into the present National Trust propertyfound what was come to describe at discontinuous in the bog,and this enabled him deploy intotwo main lines of battle and a reserve.Prince Charles wanted the Lord George Murrayto launch the army in an attack at this stage.But Lord George said no.A French officer with Prince Charles said,"Sir, we are finished."I think he'd probably used more earthy a term at the time.Now, I'm just going to highlightthe main areas of risk test.Now, as you all probably know,Cumberland detached a pretty big commandof two regiments of Dragoonsand supporting Campbell Infantryto execute a major flanking move around the Southof the Jacobite station, to emerge from the Southand hit the Jacobite Army in the rear.Now, I'm convinced here that the evidence of the mapand the documentation speaks with bon voiceand I placed the scene of this engagementvery close to the Culwhiniac Park Wallconverging on the farmstead of Culchunaig.Now the man in local command of this movewas Major General Brand who hadjust written the army's full rule book.But in December, he'd run into a massive Jacobite ambush(indistinct) Jacobites to Carlisle.And he was ultra cautious.The Jacobites, probably at the initiative of Lord George,responded very quickly.The Jacobite high command switchedtwo high policy units, Elcho's, two from Lifeguards,and a squadron of the elite Franco-IrishFitzjames' Cuirassiers, Heavy Cavalry.Now, the interesting thing about this in geography termsis the way the ground falls away in broad steps or terraces.And here the intervention of viewshed analysis,will render in precise detailas to when each party came in view of the other.And it wasn't until the English Dragoonsapproached near the top of the slope, they could actually,the moment they could seethe ground in front of them was bare,'cause the main Jacobite Army was already advancingtowards the Hanoverian.But it wasn't bare and empty for long,because as we've seen,the elite Jacobite cavalry was detached Southto confront them on the far side of a little stream.At the same time, the Hanoverian cavalry came under firefrom the right flank from two good (indistinct) battalionswhich the Jacobite had stationedimmediately under the Park Wall.Now, if you look very carefully,the second Hanoverian line,you could see the right hand troop of Kerr's cavalryexecuting a quarter wheel to the left.This is because they came under flanking firefrom Stonywood's battalion ofthis rather good goaded infantry.Now this troop didn't suffer heavy casualties,only three killed,but a massive number of horses brought down,which cost it up to 40% of its strength,and the problem is the Hanoverian cavalryretreats south out of sight.And viewshed analysis will show us exactlywhere it actually went out of sight.Now, let's carry on the main battle.The Jacobite Army advances,and it speeds in its advance via the Ridge Roadrunning actually through the Leanach enclosure,with the results we see here,hitting at full velocity, the regiment of Barrell,and bending back that of Monroe.The Jacobite forces engage with the Atholl brigadeand the first class regiment of the Campbells.But looking very closely together at the mapsof Finlayson and Sandby we can be struck almost to the meterwhat happened all the way along the rest of the line.Finlayson breaks down the Jacobite forces into five columns,in fact they're probably more in a wedge shape.And as you can see, one and two are inhand-to-hand contact with the enemy.Three and four, at greater distance,are still within musket range of the enemy,which came to, that time, 1,500 meters.Column number five can be identified with theload end regiments of Perth and Glenbucket,and the Clan Donald, advancing themselves to bethe elite of the Highland Army.They're out of musketry range fire of the enemy,but well within artillery range.Now, surely a misunderstanding now happened.We don't know exactly why the Jacobitesextended their army to the left, maybe to keep contact,establish contact with the bog, we don't know.But Cumberland completely misinterpreted this.Now the unit on the right hand flankor the first line (indistinct)when the Jacobites first advance was occupiedby the regiments of the Royal ScotsNow, Cumberland had received multiple warningsthat these men were not be trusted.Thus, on their way from Irelandand otherwhere from the North of Englandthey had repeatedly said, en masse,they were not going to fight their fellow Scots.So Cumberland, boxes it in by reliable troops,the regiment of Pulteney he brings up on the Royal Scots,right, brings out the regiment of the Batereauimmediately behind the Royal Scots,and he switches his cavalryto extend his line to the far left.So, the Royal Scots whatever their private inclinationshad no possibility of actually downing tools, as it were,when their friends from the Highlandswere advancing against.Now, Cumberland and Prince Charles at this point,considered the crucial points of this battlewas not the scrum around Leanach Cottage,but up here in the North,and the Clan Donald to be reigned to attack.They didn't fight, in fact,tried to carry out another probing attacksin an attempt to goad the Redcoats intoresponding into a panic.But Redcoats are now so strongthat there's no possibility of breaking through.The Clan Donald didn't like the lookof the way the cavalry is formingout on their far left.If they had looked to their right,they'd have found the of the restof the Jacobite Army was in retreat.Now, Finlayson shows incentive from that,these hollow blue oblongs,and that from him was the way the initial stageof the retreat of the Jacobites started.I find that difficult to believebecause I can't imagine how the Clan Donaldwould go South rather than go Southwest.Now, disaster was felt, total disaster.We know heavy casualtieswere incurred by the Jacobites in retreatby pursuing enemy cavalrywhich has been discussed so well by Murray Pittock.But this was short of a the complete wipeoutand the Clan Donald, largest part of it,was able to break free and reassemblein the area of the old Castle Hill, South of Inverness.Why was this?This is another passage which demands reevaluation.One of the reasons was the presence of an elite,small battalion of Irish infantry from the French service.If you look, if you see the Southeastern anglewith Culloden Parks Wall,just look about centimeter to the East-Northeastand you find this little Irish battalion.And by an act of self-sacrifice, it delayed,at considerable cost to itself, the advancing Hanoverians.Typically dangerous to them were the advancing cavalry.But it wasn't the whole story.From here, we return, after a long time,to the Southeast angle of the Culloden Park Wall.Could I have the next one please?Now, we're going to look in detailat the Culloden Parks Wall in two perspectives.One from an officer of the Hanoverian Engineers,Daniel Paterson, Royal Engineers.And he shows a cannon opening firefrom this angle of the wall against the Cobham's Dragoons.Now, the location of this wall I've had trouble withbecause I've been waiting until three weeks agoon news of any progress of Historic Environments Scotland'sarcheological research into the wall.They could give me no idea,when I first asked them a couple of years ago,when the work would be ready.They were obviously not in a state to do so.I had hoped that they would give me a notice of their,of when the work would be completed,but they're still working on it.And work like this,when your study is going to have a formof an official document, cannot be hurried.So I don't, I've got no position on that.So I had to by what seemed to me,the unanimous verdict out of the mapswhich is to place it just North of the Parks Wallin the immediate vicinity of the present King's Stables.I should have mentioned when I showed William Roy's mapthat the King's Stables didn't exist there,it was just bare countryside.Now let's look at this map in detail.Paterson, as the viewpoint of the engineer,chose it to be a very carefully preparedfield fortification.Stones piled up on the outside, covering gapswhich the French gun detachment had knocked in the wall,one, a breach just to the East,just the North of the actual salient,one, in the actual salient corner of the wall itself,and a third facing to the Southeast.Now this particularly, it was a properly formed embrasure,with protective banks splaying out on either side.So, formidable earth piece of fortification.And Paterson had the gun here,only had a single gunbut it switched between embrasures.He has it opening the fire at a range of 600 metersagainst the Cobham's Dragoons.Now let's look at a companion map byJasper Leigh Jones of the Royal Artilleryand he shows the Hanovarian response,which is absolutely massive.Cumberland brings up roughly half it's available artillery.Very roughly, four cannon and three Coehorn mortars.Now these were light portable mortarsbut very devastating in their effect.And they had this really nerveless taskof wiping out this French gun detachmentand their solitary gun at very close range,the nearest being about something like 150 meters.So, cannon shot concentrated against thisSoutheast facing embrasure, three pound of cannon shot,and three Coehorn mortars at high angleso their mortar bombs could descend inside the enclosureand explode.We don't know what happens to this gun detachment point,probably wiped out.But this had a major deterrent effect on the Hanoverians.Now, the next one please.Now here, we have a chart of the gun of this type,a new type of light artillery introduced by Marshal Sachs.This plan actually shows it without its wheels,it's a quite very neat piece of gun design.A very compact, really quite small piece,but firing a cannonball weighing 4 1/4 each pounds,but very accurate, so formidable piece of artillery.I conclude with the last slide now, please.Here we have Thomas Sandby in his role of artistdepicting this angle of the wall.The troops you see here are the Jacobite Armyin their original position.It's a very neat drawing as it shows one breachin the Eastern side of the wall.Now, it's very difficult to see on this picture,he actually depicts this light French cannon,a very small piece here actually, but,when he drew with his pictures,Sandby used a lot of artistic impression.And it wasn't artistic to show all the breaches in the wall.And then you have imaginary mountainsin the background of the scene.This is a very tidied up picture which,of what at the time of the battle,must have seemed like a corner of Stalingrad.The three breaches in the walls,this is about spent cannonballs,splinters and mortar bombs, and fragments of human anatomy.And the Duke of Cumberland knew about scenes of this kindand he once spoke with very considerable perception."If people", he said, "military art is wrong.Military art is wrong because it gives no ideawhat you would actually see on a battle.If people ever knew what a battle looked likenations would have never ever go to war again."And there, I'll sign off.- [Raoul] Thank you very much, Christopher.That was fascinating.And I completely see where the forensic skills now come in.It's a never-ending piece of work to try and understandmore and more about this battle.So, thank you so much.There'll be a chance for everybody to give questionsand we'll hopefully cover some of thoseon the panel session at the end of the next bit.I'm going to introduce you now to Derek Alexander.- [Derek] Hello.- Sorry, just realised I wasn't on video there.I'm hoping you heard what I said.I'm not gonna repeat it.So, yes, I'm gonna introduce Derek Alexanderwho is the Head of Archeologyat National Trust of Scotland.Derek studied prehistoric archeologyat the University of Edinburgh.He specialized in the later prehistory of temperate Europe.He graduated in 1990,worked for the university's commercialarcheology unit for 10 years.He joined the Trust in 2000 as theWest Regional Archeologistand was appointed Head of Archeology in 2011.A recent research has had a major focuson the archeology of Jacobite Scotlandwith field work in Glencoe and Glenshiel.Over to you Derek, thank you.- Thank you very much, Raoul,good morning, ladies and gentlemen.I'll just share my screen if I can do that?Share from beginning.Okay, can you see all that?Give give me a thumbs up.Excellent.What I'm going to do this morning is a great,I think it's an add on to whatChristopher has already outlined.It's great to follow him,because he has provided a wonderful overviewof the military history of the battle of Culloden,and that's something I wouldn't attempt to do.I'm an archeologist.My thing is I'm a landscape detective, a landscape curator,so I'm looking for changes in landscapes,and from a conservation point of viewthat's very important because,if you want to protect the significant itemsin the landscape you need to know what they areand what the significance is,and whether what has come beforeas well as what you want to pass on to the future.This first slide is Culloden battlefieldfrom the line of the Old Roadas it passed through the battlefieldheading towards the commemorative cairn.And you can just make out the flags at that timeof the Jacobite line.And for me here, there's a nice sign in the foregroundtells you that it's a battlefield.So we know that bit's protected,but it's obviously a lot bigger than that, as we'll see.I have to say, at the outset,this is very much synthetic work.It's pulling on lots and lots of different research.Raoul has already mentioned the importance of researchand as a conservation organisation, again,knowing what is there and the significance of itis key to protection and to promotion,and to providing people's opportunityto experience that on the ground.So we rely heavily on lots and lots of researchersand I've just drawn your attentionto some of the most recent work,and from an archeological point of viewTony Pollard's edited book on"Culloden, The Archeology and Historyof the Last Clan Battle" is a fantastic pulling togetherof the archeological material.And of course, Christopher,who's just spoken and very eloquently previous to me,his wonderful book on the entire campaign of the'45 "Fight For A Throne".I recommend it to you.There's thousands and lots and lots of differentpublications out there for you to have a look at.But as I go through,I'll try and acknowledge the peoplewho have input research as we go.And there's a thanks at the end as well for that,because I am heavily drawing on other people's workand that's very much the nature of what we do in the Trust.Christopher has already suggested that, you know,the key to understanding the battle is of coursethat the map evidence combined with the documentaryand historic resources that tell usabout the actual events that happened.And of course they all vary.People who were involved on the ground,on the Jacobites side,and on the government British Army sideall had different viewpoints,and some of them recorded them.Not all of them were recorded.If they were all recorded,there'd be about 12,000 different accounts of the battle.There isn't that.But so we have to work with the documentary sideand with map evidence to try and come upwith as good an interpretation as we can.And of course, there is lots of disagreements, and there's,from the map evidence and the documentary sourcesas Christopher has already pointed out,they don't always match up.But that's one of the exciting thingsabout history and archeology in Scotland,and, in fact, across the world.This is Sandby's map which shows quite nicelythe arrangement of troops.I've rotated it so North is approximatelyto the top of the screen here.It's not quite, it's off to the right.What it shows nicely is the arrangementas both armies are leaning up.But what I've marked there in the blue,the two points in blue,are the key points on the Culwhiniac enclosureon the bottom left and the Culloden Parks at the top rightwhich effectively mark the lining up on,at the start to the battle of the Jacobite front line.The red dot at the back is what we often useto position the government army,and that's Old Leanach Cottage.But there's lots of different interpretationsas Christopher has drawn our attention to.And some recent work, as Christopher mentioned,by Kevin Munro, Historic Environment Scotland,he presented at a seminar we hada few years ago at Culloden,was to try and identify the locationusing map based evidence of the Culloden Parks cornerand where it is.And when you look at all the historic mapsand there are about 30 or 40 of them, different ones,these are photocopies and sketches of some of them,just laid on my flat floor,and most of them are lined with the Northto the top of the screen here.You can see the blue dots of the Culloden Parksin the top left and the Culwhiniac enclosures below it,mark the line consistently just about, anyway,of the lining up of the Jacobite front line.So, locating those on the ground is key,'cause the Trust a few years agolocated the Culwhiniac enclosures and reconstructedthe Northeast or the Northern corner of it,and it was marked in the boundary of the parishes,the local parish boundaries.It was preserved in that side of things.There are lots of different maps, and as I said,they don't all agree and they don't all translatein terms of once you start trying to overlay themonto the current maps.There's a great deal of variety in terms of scale.Here's a really good one from,that shows the Culloden House in quite a strange enclosureat the top left there, from a French officer.And some of them, you know,they match better with the current Ordnance Surveythan others, but again,it's drawing to the precise locations,and Christopher's maps that he showed previouslyare a wonderful attempt to summarisemany of these different maps,and he's looked at it from a very forensic point of view,which is great.Of course, our understanding of the battlefieldis important from our point of view,from the Trust and from an archeological point of view,to look at it since the battleand its role in the commemoration of the battle.So, Drummossie Moor since 1746.There's a great chapter by Elspeth Masson and Jill Hardenin Pollard's book.Obviously, this is the Ordnance Survey map.This was published in 1903but it marks the clan graves quite clearly,each with their names attached.Doesn't show very well there,but when you color them in,all the red marks the graves,and the ones that you saw often get forgottenare the ones along, the Campbell onesfurther to the Southwest.And this, the location of the commemorative cairnand the line of the road that is knocked throughin the 1830s from Inverness to the Northeast.And it cuts through, right through, the clan graveyard,and bones were exposed at that time.And of course, you can also see off to the right,Old Leanach Cottage which marked just behindthe government front line.Yeah, so the cairn and the gravesand the grave stones were addedby Forbes of Culloden in the 1880s.So it's quite late,but it's a commemorate marking of the spot,and the cairn itself was constructed.Although foundations were earlier,the cairn as we see today was constructed in the 1880s.I don't know if you saw Darren Layne's talk this morning.It was fantastic.And there is something special about Cullodenand people visited it quite quickly,certainly in the 19th century.And here's a lovely photograph of the late 19th centuryshowing the cairn and the road that wasknocked through the graveyardand continued to be in use until the 1980s.And on the right-hand side,you maybe just make it beyond these figuresin the middle of the road, some of the grave stones there.So, understanding how things have changedand what is protected is keyfor a conservation organisation.This is, I'll come back to the background map,which is our LiDAR survey of it,but this is a summary of the Trust's ownership.In the centre here is the old roadand in the middle the bitsthat came into our ownership first of allthe ground around Old Leanachand then the cottage itself,the commemorative cairn and the clan graves.And Christopher mentioned the King's Stablesout to the west there,close to where Jacobite left-wing was anchored.In 1945, Cumberland Stoneand the little patch of ground there came into our care.And then in 1981, the conifer plantationswere given to us from the Forestry Commissionand here you can see the surroundingmature conifer plantation that had been removedby the 1980s.But you can see how it hid a good chunk of the battlefieldand the views from the commemorative cairnwere incredibly restricted.Finally, or not finallybecause we have those other bits that have been added,but probably a big chunk of important groundwas the field of the English.The open area of agricultural landwhich lies to the Southwest of the current visitor centre.So that's a piecemeal expansionof our landholding over time.And of course with that has come an understandingof how we can manage it to open up views,and we also get an idea of how touristschanged their visits to the sitesand what the focus of visitor concentration wasbecause here on the left-hand side we have the cairn,the commemorative cairn and the graveyard.You can see some of the stonesjust in the central foreground.And then you can see in the middle,Achnacarry Cottage, built in 1934.And just to the right of thatyou'll see the roof of Old Leanach here.And just the newly constructed,what was our old visitor centre, just offscreen there.Achnacarry was effectively after the commemorative cairnand clan graveyard area was a sort of visitor focus.It served cups of tea, it became a tea shop,about 8,000 cups of tea, something like that,were served in one year.The Trust bought it and demolished itin order to improve the views from there,and there was quite good discussion of that whole processof how bits have ground have come and goneand how views have been opened up.So I think a very positive thing to get rid of that cottage.I think that the battlefield is a much better visitwithout that cottage being there.And of course, then finally it was demolished in 1972,the idea was because this new visitor centrewhich is our old visitor centre,had been built besides the the existing road,which in the bottom right-hand side of this, these images,you can see quite clearly that the old roadstill existing through the clan grave area.And that was only moved in the 1980sto further to the North as Christopher mentioned.But you can see the Old Leanach dwarfedby this white, brightly painted buildingin the middle of the battlefield.And we just forget that just how, you know,how imposing it was as a feature and,you know had an impact on the landscape,no doubt about that.So I think again,probably a useful thing that it was taken away.And of course it's been replaced by our new visitor centrewhich it was set into the landscape a lot better.You can see here, it's pitching downwith the hills in the backgroundon the South side of the River Nairnto try and blend in and sit back behind the government,to the south of the government deployments.And it has some wonderful architectural features.I really like the wall with the sticking out stonesthat relate to the number of casualties on the dayat the battle, the 1,200 Jacobites at leastand the government casualties too.And you can compare and contrastthe two groupings of stones.Are very, very subtle and I think often,maybe people don't notice it,but when you do get told about it, you never forget it.I think it's fantastic.Of course, the archeology has had,we've done lots of work there.I'm not going to talk about lots of thatbecause there are people better placed to do that.Over the years, two men in a trench,various little bits of watching briefs,but also work under the taken in advanceof the construction of the new visitor centreand for interpretation purposes.Lots of metal detecting, detailed metal detectingto find hundreds of musket balls of different calibersrelating to different sides.And one or two, I know Tony,I often suggest this is one of his favorite artifacts ever.This pewter cross found close towhere the Atholl Brigade were stationedagainst the top end of the Leanach enclosure.So lots of very good tangible remains,and often as you would say,visceral evidence of battlefields and engagements.So the cross there again,and some of the musket balls, the bayonets.And a lot of this material,and I have to thank Natasha Ferguson herewho did the cataloging of alland produced our catalogs of all the materialfrom the visitor centre research work,which includes all these flattened and cut musket ballsthat expand and cause horrendous woundsonce it left the muzzle of the gun.So musket balls, pistol balls.There's some of the split ones, bits of grapeshot,bits of canister, a canister case, pistol shotand a piece of a Coehorn mortar shellas Christopher was mentioning.And again, some more of these very evocative items.The cross in the top left and the trigger guardof a Brown Bess musket that had been hit,impacted by a musket ball, in the bottom right.So lots of work,but when you see it, start mapping it,actually, we've only looked ata tiny proportion of the battlefield.I quite like this map, but this is the battlefieldas protected by Historic Environment Scotlandby the designation of historic battlefields in 2012,which was the area obviously around Culloden House,and also the wider battlefield.The Trust owns this patch in the middleof which is what I was showing you around the cairn here.But of course it extends much wider,and of course, battlefields are difficultto put lines around because in fact,there is the advance, and there is the retreat,and the rout and the chase back to Invernessand the withdrawal of some of the troops,as Christopher described, over pieces of this ground.And that is illustrated in some of thesevery simplistic diagrams in the battlefield inventory,which is fine.That's where you've got to represent these things.I quite like this slide that I put together.You would think this is a military movementof some sort of troop type, but in fact, what it is,is the retreat of the visitor centre.As the National Trust of Scotland landexpands in the centre, it goes from being,the cairn is still a focus, but in fact, you know,people used to visit that as the primary focusand then of course it moved to Achnacarry Cottageand the the Old Leanach,and then the old visitor centre that was from 1970 to 2007,and then to the current visitor centre there.So, as we understand more and morewhat we do is we reinterpret and we obviouslyhave less and less of an impact on the battlefieldas far as we can.What I want to do now is just turn quicklyto the LiDAR survey, that work that we've been doing,and that is looking at, it's a mapping exercise.And what we've done is we've taken the,and it was done a few years ago nowand it was funded by money raised from thework of the visitor centre itselfand commissioned by the property manager at the time,Andrew McKenzie, and it's a fantastic resourcefor us to do further research at Culloden.And it's a mapping exercise.Basically, you fly a plane and you fire a laser out of it,and it bounces back and it gives you16 three dimensional points per meter in this case.So you can build up a sort of micro topography of the site.And what it can also dois it can strip away landscape features,so you can take away tree cover and buildingsso you can see more of the topography.And as Christopher has already shown,topography is key to understanding battles.What people could see, where they were positioned,what sort of hollows in the ground were,what slowed people down, where was footing good,where it was footing bad?We initially used it to focusparticularly on the clan cemetery site here.As you can see, this is the old road filled in now,as it ran through the centre of the clan grave area,a bank around here, the commemorative cairnand each of the individual clan gravesas I showed on the map at the start,the Ordnance Survey map.In fact, so detailed that you can actually seethe individual stones showingas features on the LiDAR data there.It's lit with light, just like the old maps,it's lit with light standardly here from the Northwest.And what we can then do is we can startto play about with it and so not just usingthe three-dimensional side of the LiDAR,we can overlay it on to historic mapsand use different mapping exercisesthat we've undertaken to record things,like archeological features,previous work on the site, that sort of thing.So, here we have the Ordnance Survey map, again,of the turn of the last century, about 1900s,with the clan graves area in the centreof the old road running through,a plantation of woodland or there the open field,the field of the English.And what we've done is we've overlaid that directly.And as I merge it into the backgroundwhat you can start to see is how the land formstarts to appear using the three dimensional LiDAR data.So this is the old road running through,this is the clan graves in the centre here.That's the road that was put through in the '80sas it curves around the back.That's the car park for the old visitor centre.The visitor centre's in here, Old Leanach's about here,and that's the, what do you call it,bund that leads up to the roof of the current visitor centrewhich is here, and the car park.But also what you can see in the backgroundis the geology and that very much linksinto what Christopher was saying about the boggy hollows,particularly in this area over here.These are streamlets or boggy areas,and this coming down this side emptying down off the ridgedown into the Nairn, River Nairn valleyto the South East and heading down to the coaston the Northwest side of the ridge.So it's very useful for getting an idea of topographybut you can then start to look at it from a current,this is digital photography takenat the same team as the LiDAR.It can be used to plot current land use.So we can see quite clearly see the currentconifer plantations to the Northwest,to the Southwest the area of the central partof the battlefield and the visitor centre.And the areas of arable and pastoral fields around it.And what we are able to do is then take that,produce contour maps so we can use the 3D datato produce contours through that data,allowing us to understand the contour and the gradientsin order to understand how what troops would be,where they would be positioned and what they would see.And what we've done here is we've takenChristopher's previous map,not the one he's just shown but an earlier version of it,and overlain that on to the topographyas outlined by the LiDAR data.Culwhiniac enclosure down hereand if I zoom through where we thinkthe corner of the Culloden Parks,although it was demolished,we think is somewhere in this area here,the King's Stables cottages in this area,just this area here, yes,And the two blue lines dots are pretty muchwhere all those maps show the initiallining up of the Jacobite line is on in the landscape,and that's Old Leanach as I mentionedright at the start of the talk.So what we've got here,and this is something we'll be working on more and morefor the future and it's quite nicebecause it fits in beautifullywith Christopher's last slide,it's looking at the viewpoint of the French gun.That one single lone cannon that held offsome of the government horse from pursuing the McDonald'son the left flank for quite enough timeto let them to get clear of the field.And what's shown here is the troop positions,but also the orange here is what could be seenfrom that single position at a height of aboutone meter 50 or two meters high.So, for what your standard person would see.So those, there are big gaps,you see there are hollows that thingsprobably wouldn't be seen into,although it depends on how tall you areand whether you're carrying a flag,whether you're standing,whether you're on a horse or not.All these things need to be taken into consideration,and that is our next set of processes,to work with Christopher,to start to look at where we want to try and getdifferent viewpoints from.So that's from the French gun position looking,well, looking all around it.And the other thing we all have to take into considerationis the height of some of the park wallsbecause they would obviously obscure things.But what this neatly shows is the North,Northeast-Southwest line of the Ridge of Cullodenand how the land falls away on either side.And that you could see, you know,from the Jacobite left flank there was no waythey could see what was happening on the right flank.And then, this is the same, doing the same thing,a viewshed analysis from the centre of the second lineof the government troops here.What could be seen from that position therewhich is probably not far off where Cumberland wasat portions of the battle.And here again, you see the same viewpoints.Some of the hollows have been picked out.More work needs to be done,but it starting to show exactly what we canstart to play a bit with once we get this in.And this is all done.And I have to thank Graeme Cavers of AOC Archeologyfor putting this all together as a GIS packageso we can run through things.So not just how can we put the troop types onbut we can also play about with the evidence,archeological evidence.This is Tony Pollard and Iain Banksmetal detecting survey work plotted on to the LiDAR stuff.And here with the GIS, you can start to play aroundand look across the material and interrogate it,looking at different types of objects,where they were found, but also you get an ideaof just how small the area is we've looked at.And then you can click on individual items.And here we have the troop position,the position of the cross,as it was found at the far South Westof the metal detecting survey area.And just to finish,this is the sort of thing that also we can do,and thanks the AOC for this as well.We can use the LiDAR data to start 3D modelingand changing the light direction.And we can take the,we can turn the digital photography onwhich can be helpful sometimes.But we can turn that off tooand start to play about with itto look at the different viewpoints.And again, you'll see the topographic featurescoming through on that.I mean, the power of this material is great.And we've now got this 3D modelfor an area of about four kilometers squarewithin the big loop of the Culloden, the railway line,the Highland railway line, the Inverness railway line,that whole end of the ridge is modeled nowand we can start to use it to tell more of a storyabout the Battle of Culloden.And I'll just stop there.I just wanted to say thanks very much againto all the people who have input to this,and in particular to Christopher himselfwho has helped fund some of the work.- Fantastic. Thank you, Derek.I think it's really exciting this position we're in now.There's so much we can learnfrom this information and from this data.And I think the scope is endless, but,as I said earlier, I'm no expert,and we are lucky enough today also to have with usProfessor Murray Pittock from Glasgow University.Murray is a Bradley Professorand Pro Vice-Principal at University of Glasgow.He's also a board member of the National Trust for Scotlandand he his our Scottish history advisor.He also advises at the National Museum,National Galleries and Museums Galleries, Scotlanda variety of overseas institutions and agencies.He has an incredibly long list of appointmentsfrom all over the world by the looks of itwhich I'm not gonna go into todaybecause we have a limited amount of time,though, just Murray I will though, say that he's another,along with Christopher,one of the global authorities on Culloden,currently researching global history of Scotland for Yaleand the British Army in Scotland, 1746 to '60.Professor Pittock,I'd like to ask you if we may to just reflecton what Christopher and Derek have presented,and what this might mean for us here at Culloden?- Delighted, Raoul, to go through some of the mostinteresting and original presentations on Cullodenthat it's been my pleasure to hear, here or anywhere else.And I think this is a real,really brilliant to see the extent to which the Trusthas foregrounded original research today.It's wonderful to see.So to take, first of all,Christopher's excellent forensic addressand set some context for that.One of the things that Michael Russell didas our culture cabinet secretary of the Scottish governmentwas to authorize the Scottish Battlefields Registerwhich reported and was set up in 2011.And which should have provided much better evidencethan previously existed and did providefor the extent of Culloden Battlefield.But because that didn't involve any kindof legislative protection,and it only meant though the planning authoritiesshould take notice of the existenceof the Battlefields Register,and to what extent that taking notice had any effectwas really up to the planning authority concerned,it was proven to be a broken reedwhen the critical issue of planning development at Culloden,which Professor Duffy highlighted,Viewhill, the Viewhill development,went through the entire planning system in 2017.And to just relate that development at Viewhillto the couple of the maps that Professor Duffy showed.I think the Yorke map looks as if itwas in the original disposition of the troops,but if you notice on the Yorke map or you remember,the Jacobite left overlaps the British Army right.And in doing so it presented a threatwhich Cumberland countered by bringing upCobham's Dragoons across the back of the third linewith some other units to reinforce Kingston's Light Horseand his command post on the right.The ground over which they movedand for over which they subsequently chargedin attempt to create a double envelopmentof the Jacobite Army, which was,as we've so eloquently heard,hindered by du Saussay's four pounder gunat the edge of Culloden Park enclosures.That ground is the ground on which Viewhill stands.That ground covers movements of British cavalry.So that was a significant,that's a significant intrusiononto the historic space of the battlefield.And I think that what Professor Duffy's paperbrings home to us is the extent to whichthe interpretation of the battlefieldas a National Trust for Scotland sitehas been absolutely centralto the way the NTS has protected and developed itover the last 85 years.But it's been too easy for people to think that the siteis the site that the National Trust of Scotland owns,which actually has itself changed significantlywith the purchase of additional land since the 1930s.As you've seen today,that site is about one third of the total battle site.And it's very, very important to realisethat in conserving Culloden is not aboutconserving the National Trust of Scotland Culloden,it's helping the National Trust of Scotlandto conserve all of Cullodenand to resist the planning applicationswhich continue to be made,and which have recently been madeon the lines of Jacobite retreatand the Jacobites by the Jacobite second line.So if you look at some of the salient thingsin Professor Duffy's important contribution,one of the things that you would notice,not only is that that new King's Stables roadtravels really from the Jacobite first to second linebut I think those maps and their interpretationbring home to us the fact that the Jacobite first lineis so much larger than the second line and was so much,it was absolutely critical that it was successfulin the first phase of the actionbecause the Jacobites had no effective reserves.And although the Elcho and Fitzjames' cavalry screenbecause of the contours of the land,which brings up a very useful point thatDerek Alexander raised about what you can seefrom where you're standingbecause the line shifts contour towards the Nairnby round about 15 meters,actually helped to screen the Jacobite second lineto conceal its inadequacyfrom the British cavalry advance on that wing.And those things, on both wings,the gun at Culloden Parks preventedthe envelopment on the British right,and the cavalry screen prevented the impetusof the envelopment on the British left.Those things helped to stop the envelopment,which would have killed far more Jacobitesthan actually died, though goodness knows those were enough.So I think that give,that you've had visualize there a really good,a really good overview of the battlecomparing the Jacobite Army,so strong on its front frontline, with the British Army,so strong over three lines of assembly.And again, the very important pointabout the composition of the Jacobite Army.Although we have put up in the Victorian periodclan graves and memorials for clans,the Jacobite Army was in regimental format.And many of those were enrolled in the different regimentswere not necessarily from the localitiesin which the feudal magnates who had raised them came from.Moreover, even when they were,they were often conventionally organised.For example, MacDonnell of Glengarry'sas well as two other Jacobite regimentshad grenadier companies.So they were very, in that sense,a conventional organisation.But if you want to think of the sizethat we really need to look at at the battlefieldand think of the battlefield in terms of,it also helps to visualise just how many men,roughly 12 to 14,000, were on the battlefieldon that fateful day in 1746.Because again, it's quite clear that if you think abouthow they would be spaced out,it's quite impossible for them actually,all to have stood on the National Trust for Scotland site.So I think those points are really brilliantlyand strongly visually brought homeby Professor Duffy's presentation of the developmentand the speed of development of the battle.And I think we need to continue to ensurethat the Scottish government especially after theupcoming election in Scotland on the 6th of May,and others, are really apprised of the scale of the battleand the integration of all of the battlefield as a wholeto the way in which we need to preserve,protect and conserve it.To reflect somewhat on also on Derek Alexander's paper,I think it was what, there were two really,really excellent things there.First of all, the LiDAR, which we need to dwell on I think,the LiDAR data, the looking,the development of the contours of the battle.The way that the LiDAR data seriously reinforcesthe integration and synthesis of the mapping data.I don't think we need to be any longer in any doubtabout the extent over which the battle rangedbecause we have confirmation from so many different sources.But one of the other things that was really importantin what Derek Alexander talked aboutwas the memorialisation of the battle.The way we remember the battle, which has changed so much.Its very nice to see Achnacarry,which with its tea room, which didn't disappear till 1972,and obviously it's very much closerto the scene of the action than anycurrent planned development, but,what we're looking at there is theNational Trust of Scotland conservationwhich helped to develop a situationwhere the battlefield had all its extraneous buildingsremoved, and indeed of course,helped to relocate the road in 1981.But that removal was part of a cycle of conservation,which is now under pressure and being attacked from without.And I think that that's one of the importantcycles of memory we need to reverse.We've moved to a situation where we conservemore and more and more and more of Cullodenand now we're being, it's being put under threatby those who would like to conserve itless and less and less.Why they would like to do that,I think I'll just reflect on at the end.I think one of the interesting things about Cullodenis that it wasn't really particularly remembereduntil the centenary of 1846.And actually, when the initial stone was laid for the cairnthat became the Forbes Memorial in 1881,it was a weeping woman and childwhich was the intention to be put up.Very much because that was the shape of the wayIrish Famine monuments were beginning to go.And the date, 19 September, 1849,when that initial stone was laid in the cairnwas actually towards the end of theWest Highland potato faminewhich suffered from exactly the climatic problemswhich affected much more seriously though,seriously enough in the West Highlands,Ireland in that period,so that in a way the original memorialwhich didn't get enough money to be developedas a weeping woman and childand ended up being a cairn 30 years later,is also part of the sufferingof the West Highlands in the late 1840s.Those of you who have been,who watched some of the very interesting photographsthat Derek Alexander put up will also have seennot only on the, as will be familiar to many of us,on the cairn, the Highlanders who fought for Scotlandand Prince Charlie commemorated,but also at King's Stables, the King's Stables plaque,that this is a station of the English cavalry.And of course the term, field of the English.And this brings me to the vexed, you know,the vexed nomenclature which has surrounded Culloden.And one of the fascinating things about itis that it has been largely rememberedas for most of its history when it began to be remembered,as fundamentally an Anglo-Scottish conflict.And that's still in some of the memorialsand the names of the battle.And it became, it started to be predominantly rememberedas a civil war roughly from the 1960s and '70s.It used to fit into, constitutionally speaking,a narrative about Scotland and Britain,which was irreversible.And when it appeared that there was a challenge,a constitutional challenge in the current data,that narrative, it actually,it became remembered in a rather different way.So, that's an interesting feature in itselfthe way in which the battle is rememberedand how it's remembered remains very, very important.And to take you back to a much earlier stage,when the current Leanach Cottage was reconstructedout of the stones of the Leanach enclosure in 1868,that was the same year that Queen Victoriarequested Cumberland's statue be taken downin Cavendish Square.So different parts, very different parts of this

Afternoon event: part 2

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